dd is a very handy tool and there are some more practical things we can do. For example if we want to dump a 3TB drive and want to preserve it and only 200GB are being used on the 3TB we can save a lot of space with gzip.
Backing Stuff up with dd
How to Use dd to backup a raw hard drive and tar gzip at once
Change /dev/sda to the drive you want to backup
Uh oh, so you're working on some super l33t code or other stuff that is super important and Linux Mint's MATE or Cinnamon window manager freezes. This means maybe you can move your mouse but you can't click anything, you can't Alt + Tab to another program but everything appears to be working other than that.
The first thing you would do is Ctrl + Alt + F1 (or whatever virtual terminal you want) and get into the Linux bash prompt (the black screen where things really happen :))........
You'll have to violate the iso9660 standards but it is necessary if you want to preserve your filesystem and filenames and shouldn't be an issue as long as you are using a modern OS like Linux.
genisoimage -o Backup-Myfiles.iso -r -J -joliet-long /some/path/
You will get errors like below (even enabling joliet-long didn't help)
genisoimage: Error: /some/filename.pdf have the same Joliet name
Joliet tree sort failed. The -joliet-lo........
I keep reading these drives are slower, but they are cheap and still SSDand work very fast for my needs.
As you can see the sequential read is 481-491MB/s, if I put them in MDADM RAID10 mode (normal RAID1) they should give me well over 900MB/s and with redundancy and being very cheap for what they offer.
[1232206.315622] scsi 8:0:1:0: Direct-Access ATA ADATA SU800&........
cp -a /your/source/. /your/dest/
-a preserves all file atributes and symlinks
the "." at the end of /source/ includes all hidden files such as .htacess, .bash_history, .ssh etc..
The / in /dest/ makes sure the contents go into it instead of replacing /dest itself (eg. if you did not have the / at the end).........
There are a few ways of doing this and all basically involve using the reverse proxy or "ProxyPass" feature of Apache to accomplish it.
1.) Create a normal vhost and simply symlink the root directory of the site you want to mirror.
Eg. originalsite.com and newsite.com
You would symlink like this:
ln -s /vhosts/originalsite.com/httpdocs vhosts/originalsite.com/........
I struggled with this for awhile because sometimes you have rewritten URLs that you want to pass a query string but most of the info and examples do not support this.
Take a typical example like this:
RewriteRule ^(.*)-(.*)-(.*) /?module=$3&id=$2
You need to add the QSA flag to make it work like below:
RewriteRule ^(.*)-(.*)-(.*) /?module=$3&id=$2 [QSA]
The QSA preserves the original query string but also appends it wit........
I like badblocks and don't know a better more reliable way of checking the drive. If there are no errors from badblocks and dmesg doesn't produce any SATA related errors, the drive should be good (for now at least).
I also prefer to do read and write mode, yes it takes ages but it is really the best way of doing it. This gives me the most confidence in knowing that a drive, especially a new one is at least OK at the moment.
To test in read only mode........
I was shocked that options like preserve and archive made no difference! This is a big deal and will catch people off guard.
Rsync include hidden files Solution:
You need to use something like: rsync -Pha /source/dir/. /dest/dir
*Notice the "." at the end of the source directory.
cp -a still ignores them too, the solution is the same:
cp -a /source/directory/. /destination........
Install the "Editors" and "Net" groups that will give you rsync, ssh, ssh-keygen and cron.
The trickiest thing that I keep forgetting about each time is you have to run "cron-config" which adds the cron service to Windows, and without doing that obviously no cron jobs will be run thus making automatic backups impossible.
Warning about rsync/cygwin and using the -a archive switch.
It's a good thing I caught this because it doesn't work ri........
One of the purposes of rsync is to backup whole filesystems and archive them but how can you do that properly and restore things to normal if all permissions and ownerships are not preserved from your root filesystem?
It's not desirable to have everything running as root, especially not just for an rsync.
The Easy rsync preserve permission solution for non-root users
sudo is the answer and all you have to do is edit /etc/sudoers
At the end o........
Not sure what rsync switches/options to use?
The short version would be:
I think these are really common sense options to use and probaby should be the default.
Explanation of rsync switches
P = display the progress
D = hybrid of --specials and --devices so all special and device files will be copied as well.
r = recursive (otherwise rsync won't copy files deeper than........
Create Table with structure of another existing tableOk, this has many valid uses such as if you need to create backups or the ability to undo changes, you would want to create new tables with the same structure as another. Here is how you do it.
Also remember Indexes such as PRIMARY KEYS [b:7ed9581493]will not be preserved[/b:7ed9581493] so you will have to readd them manually.[/i:7ed9581493]
[code:1:7ed9581493]CREATE TABLE NewName AS SEL........
This is something that annoys a lot of people, fortunately the Redhat style OS's are the most simple in this respect. I disagree that Debian's way makes sense, it is more of a hackish approach in how they implement iptables.
Anyway, for those who are using Redhat/Centos style OS's it is very simple.
Set your rules from the shell/command prompt and to save the iptables firewall rules so they are remember/loaded on boot just run this command: