• Debian Ubuntu 10/11/12 Linux how to get tftpd-hpa server setup tutorial


    apt install tftpd-hpa #change TFTP_ADDRESS to by setting address to 192.168.1.1:69 or the IP you need, otherwise it will listen on all IPs and interfaces which could be a security risk. # edit /etc/default/tftpd-hpa TFTP_USERNAME="tftp" TFTP_DIRECTORY="/srv/tftp" TFTP_ADDRESS="192.168.1.1:69" TFTP_OPTIONS="--secure"........
  • efibootmgr: option requires an argument -- 'd' efibootmgr version 15 grub-install.real: error: efibootmgr failed to register the boot entry: Operation not permitted.


    This sometimes happens when trying to install the EFIversion of grub to a device when you are booted into Legacy/MBR mode. It doesn't seem to occur on all machines, but some and seems somewhat BIOS dependent. grub-install --target=x86_64-efi /dev/sda Installing for x86_64-efi platform. grub-install.real: warning: Couldn't find physical volume `(null)'. Some modules may be missing from core image.. grub-install.real: warning: Couldn't find physica........
  • When is it time to leave your VPS/VDS Cloud Hosting Provider?


    When Is It Time to Leave Your VPS, VDS, and Dedicated Server Provider? Choosing the right hosting solution—be it Virtu........
  • Linux how to get list of all timezones on system Ubuntu


    find /usr/share/zoneinfo/|sed s#"/usr/share/zoneinfo/"##g|grep "/"|grep -v posix|grep -v ^"Etc/"|grep -v ^right|grep -v ^"SystemV" Africa/Addis_Ababa Africa/Abidjan Africa/Blantyre Africa/Lusaka Africa/Casablanca Africa/Libreville Africa/Asmara Africa/Bujumbura Africa/Dakar Africa/Lagos Africa/Malabo Africa/Harare Africa/Kigali........
  • docker / kubernetes breaks Proxmox QEMU KVM Bridge VMs


    Docker adds iptables rules that break a lot of things including MASQUERADE or anything that needs the FORWARD table. If NAT is not working after Docker installation, it is probably because it set the iptables FORWARD policy to DROP. This may also make you think that your br0 or bridge is not working, but it's likely just due to what we'll mention later on below, that, Docker probably set your FORWARD chain to default DROP all packets, so nothing on your bridge ever makes it out........
  • Linux Mint Ubuntu Ubiquity Installer Bug EFI Installed To Wrong Partition Solution


    Just an FYI that the installer ignores your selection of Boot Loader, as it was intended for MBR/Legacy. The installer horribly, even when choosing "Something Else" and manually partitioning and creating an EFIin your install drive, will still install grub to the first EFI partition it finds, even if you are following a guide like this to avoid wiping out the M........
  • Ubuntu/Debian Linux/Unix Howto Setup Install Syslinux Bootable USB with EFI and MBR from Command Line/CLI Terminal


    There aren't too many simple guides that show you how to use commands to setup your USB or other drive as a normal bootable drive where you can easily boot custom kernels or whatever OS you would like. 1. Get the tools we need: We install "syslinux" for MBR and "syslinux-efi" for EFI and "MBR" as we need a tool that embeds the actual MBR into our USB: sudo apt install syslinux syslinux-efi mbr........
  • Linux can't boot/grub boot loader screen with no options solution


    Usually if you get the grub boot loader and it doesn't show any boot options, it's because grub was not installed correctly and/or the partition that it is supposed to be on has changed or does not exist. It can also happen if you install Linux to one drive, but the boot loader to another by accident, whether EFI or MBR/Legacy mode. You can normally fix your booting/bootloader/MBR/EFI it by chrooting into your root partition: #become root sudo su........
  • Linux Mint Ubuntu Debian CentOS Dual Boot Install Issues


    The best way to avoid this problem is to understand how your BIOS is setup to boot. Often newer machines will default to U(EFI) which is different than the traditional MBR/Legacy mode. The problem is that this may not be apparent, often a BIOS Boot Menu will show a Legacy Boot Option and EFIOption without defining it. A good example of this is if your USB is called "Kingston" you may see in your Boot Menu "Kingston" and also "Ubuntu"........
  • Linux Mint Dual Boot Install Avoid Wiping our your Main C: drive /dev/sda MBR and EFI


    Before you try to install and dual boot it is very important to understand the concept of "what boot mode your BIOS is in" and "what mode you booted the installer to". Then follow the example of Linux Mint (but most Linux installers are very similar)to carefully understand WHERE you are installing your Boot Loader to whether that be MBR or EFI. How Am IBooted? First it's important to check your BIOS to see........
  • Linux Ubuntu Debian Centos How To Make a Bootable Windows 7, 8, 10, 2016, 2019 Server USB from ISO


    Use fdisk on your USB drive to create a bootable NTFS partition (in my case /dev/sdb): sudo fdisk /dev/sdb Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.27.1). Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them. Be careful before using the write command. Command (m for help): n Partition type p primary (0 primary, 0 extended, 4 free)........
  • How To Restore Windows MBR Bootsector from Linux using syslinux


    There are many ways but a favorite way is to boot any Linux LiveCD and to use the syslinux package like so: Just change the "sdx" to your sd for example /dev/sda or whatever the drive is that is supposed to boot Windows. sudo dd if=/usr/lib/syslinux/mbr/mbr.bin of=/dev/sdx 0+1 records in 0+1 records out 440 bytes copied, 0.0197808 s, 22.2 kB/s........
  • How To Boot Cisco CUCM UCSInstall 8.6, 10, 11 and 12 on KVM/Proxmox


    The key thing is that you must use a "machine"id of "pc-1.3" or it will say your hardware is not supported. Additionally you MUST use a virtio disk or you will get a ks_pre.sh error as soon as the install starts (a look at logs will show it can't find a disk). This is funny because even though the OS finds the disk and an fdisk -l shows it, it looks like the script looks for a /dev/vda device (virtio) and nothing else, so if you didn't use Virtio as you........
  • proxmox vm networking breaks when you restart your network on the hostnode


    Idid a systemctl restart networking and it broke Proxmox VM connectivity! #proxmox is the problem after restarting the network the tap devices go to disabled state [2230884.919905] vmbr0: port 7(tap118i0) entered disabled state [2230884.948864] vmbr0: port 8(tap122i0) entered disabled state [2230884.972748] vmbr0: port 6(tap119i0) entered disabled state [2230885.004745] vmbr0: port 5(tap117i0) entered disabled state [2230885.03673........
  • Debian/Ubuntu/Mint Linux How To Set VLAN in /etc/network/interfaces


    You can find many ways to specify the VLANin your network configuration but Ifind this is the simplest and quickest. In this case we are talking about a bridged adapter "vmbr0" but it works even if you just had a normal non-bridged interface. The key here is that in vmbr0 you'll notice there is no IP address. We just specify "manual". Below it is a similar stanza for "vmbr0.58" in this case 58 represents the VLAN (change........
  • Linux how to copy GPT partition table with dd


    The old MBR 512 bytes partition table is no longer valid if you are using GPT. To copy a GPT table with dd to another disk do it like so: Below sda is the source disk and destination disk is sdb (change to meet your needs). Depending on how you use this, you have to be careful. The assumption is that you should only dump the partition table back to a disk you will newly format. If not you'll need to ch........
  • text to speech for Linux


    espeak - is horrible and sounds very old and robotic echo "hello there"|espeak #don't know how to use mbrola and plugins cicero jovie just seems to be a graphical interface to espeak There is also sbreader/sapi Google's Text To Speech Works Quite Well #!/bin/bash say() { local IFS=+;/usr/bin/mplayer -ao alsa -really-quiet -noconsolec........
  • Migrating from Linux Mint 17.2 mdadm RAID array to a new one (because I upgraded to larger drives).


    1.) Replicate the number of partitions in your new drives. gdisk /dev/sda gdisk /dev/sdb I created 3 partitions of the same same size. partition #1: +1G (/boot) partition #2: +60G (swap) partition #3: rest of it (/) #note if you are using GPT/gdisk you need to create separate a partition at least 1MB in size (in my case I would a 4th partition and mark it type ef02).........
  • remove gpt partition linux


    sudo fdisk /dev/sdh WARNING: GPT (GUID Partition Table) detected on '/dev/sdh'! The util fdisk doesn't support GPT. Use GNU Parted. WARNING: The size of this disk is 8.0 TB (8001563221504 bytes). DOS partition table format can not be used on drives for volumes larger than (2199023255040 bytes) for 512-byte sectors. Use parted(1) and GUID partition table format (GPT). The device presents a l........
  • Centos installing grub problems suspect gpt problem


    grub> root (hd0,0) root (hd0,0) Filesystem type is ext2fs, partition type 0xfd grub> setup (hd0) setup (hd0) But if you do: root (hd1,0) setup (hd1) it does work, I think hd0/sda had a GPT partition that was not removed properly (what I did was just dd bs=512 count=1 the partition table from another drive since the partition table should be identical). Checking if "/boot/grub/........
  • KVM: unknown exit, hardware reason 0x80000021 kvm_run returned -22 solution


    If the below is happening on KVM (a very weird and scary looking error) it's probably because of Windows. This has happened countless times to me where the bootsector on Windows 7/2008 becomes corrupted easily (even by a crash or shutdown). KVM: unknown exit, hardware reason 0x80000021 kvm_run returned -22 rax 0000000000000010 rbx 0000000000000080 rcx 0000000000000000 rdx 0000000000000080 rsi 000000000025db2a rdi 000000000007db2a rsp 0000000000000200 rbp........
  • How to install GRUB to the MBR of a disk image.


    cat | grub --device-map=/dev/null Now pay close to the attention of the beginning. Type: "device (hd0) VPS.img" this is telling what hd0 will be to GRUB and we're telling it the disk image file "VPS.img" in the current directory is hd0, you can specify alternate paths and image names of course. GNU GRUB version 0.97 (640K lower / 3072K upper memory) [ Minimal BASH-li........
  • KVM Windows 7 won't boot Virtual Machine/VM after install solution


    This seems to be common for some reason when trying to run Windows 7 under KVM and 7 has always had strange issues with KVM. What happens for me is after the install it simply won't boot, it stays on the POST screen and does nothing. For some reason it appears the boot sector either doesn't get installed or gets corrupted with KVM. The solution is to boot the install disc for Windows 7 and reinstall the windows MBR into the boot sector: 1. Boot t........
  • Revert to GRUB 0.97/1 instead of GRUB2


    had trouble trying to revert Ubuntu 10.04 LTS from grub2, won't boot mdraid and did not even install mdadm during the installation! I have tried moving back to GRUB 0.97 backed up original /boot and then copied /boot from an old Debian install. Modified device.map and menu.lst and put the appropriate kernels and initrd for Ubuntu back in /boot I ran grub: root (hd0,1) grub> setup (hd0) Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1........
  • Clone any OS partition perfectly


    Clone any OS partition perfectlyIn one box I needed to copy the boot partition to another disk while retaining the MBR and other data. I simply ran this command: [code:1:1b1ff110ca]dd if=/dev/hda1 of=/dev/hdb1[/code:1:1b1ff110ca] [b:1b1ff110ca]if[/b:1b1ff110ca] = source patition [b:1b1ff110ca]of[/b:1b1ff110ca] = destination partition Here's an interesting article on it http://www.rajeevnet.com/hacks_hints/os_cl........
  • GRUB "Error 2: Bad file or directory type" 0.97 won


    You can see the problem below, GRUB recognizes my hard drive and sees the partitions but cannot access them. This is from the GRUB boot disc I'm using. What happened is that I had some power issues causing this system's power to be interrupted several times and basically an on/off on/off situation. The system won't boot, I just get a flashing cursor and no message or error from GRUB. Obviously the problem is that my MBR seems corrupt or some other issue. My........
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