• How To Upgrade Debian 8,9,10 to Debian 12 Bookworm


    Step 1.) Upgrade to Debian 11 first The process to go to Debian 12 is not as smooth as 11, when trying to upgrade from Debian 10. In fact, it doesn't work directly, so you'll first need to follow this guide to update to Debian 11, reboot and come back here if successful. Step 2.) Update sources.list Update your /etc/apt/sources.list like this: deb http://........
  • debootstrap how to install Ubuntu, Mint, Debian install


    In this example we install debian 10 with --variant=minbase which gives us a minimal/tiny install. Don't use variant if you want the full size install. mkdir /tmp/deb10files debootstrap --variant=minbase buster /tmp/deb10files/ Did you get an error? debootstrap --variant=minbase buster /home/theuser/VMs/deb10files/ You'll get this error if you make a directory in your home........
  • How To Restore Partition Table on Running Linux Mint Ubuntu Debian Machine


    Here is an easy way to restore things if you have the starting point and size of each partition using fdisk: In this example we pretend that /dev/sda was wiped out, but the running system still has the info in /sys/class/block/sda Go into each partition and record the "start" and "size" hostdev@box /sys/class/block/sda/sda1 $ cat start 2048 hostdev@box /sys/class/block/sda/sd........
  • Convert and install to LUKS Encrypted Drive Ubuntu 18.04 19.10 Linux Mint and Debian Based Linux


    The reason for doing this is that the installer doesn't seem to work properly for LUKS and the server installer doesn't even support LUKS anymore. When you use the GUI install on Desktop for LUKS it won't boot and will just hang after you enter your password. So the only reliable way is to do it ourselves. 1.) Make a default minimal install of Ubuntu 2.) Have a secondary disk on the server or VM. 3.)........
  • CentOS 8 how to convert to a bootable mdadm RAID software array


    The cool thing here is that we only need 1 drive to make a RAID 10 or RAID 1 array, we just tell the Linux mdadm utility that the other drive is "missing" and we can then add our original drive to the array after booting into our new RAID array. Step#1 Install tools we need yum -y install mdadm rsync Step #2 Create your partitions on the drive that will be our RAID array Here I assume it is /dev........
  • Linux Ubuntu Debian Centos How To Make a Bootable Windows 7, 8, 10, 2016, 2019 Server USB from ISO


    Use fdisk on your USB drive to create a bootable NTFS partition (in my case /dev/sdb): sudo fdisk /dev/sdb Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.27.1). Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them. Be careful before using the write command. Command (m for help): n Partition type p primary (0 primary, 0 extended, 4 free)........
  • Cisco Unified Communications Manager 12 Install Errors on Proxmox/KVM


    The strange thing is that usually the first install or two will work on any new machine but then it suddenly won't. I had this experience on QEMU 2.13 on a different machine. There is something finicky or buggy about the CUCM installer even when choosing the same virtual hardware specs. qemu-kvm command: /usr/libexec/qemu-kvm -version QEMU PC emulator version 0.12.1 (qemu-kvm-0.12.1.2-2.506.el6_10.1), Copyright (c) 2003-2008 Fabrice Bellard ........
  • How To Boot Cisco CUCM UCSInstall 8.6, 10, 11 and 12 on KVM/Proxmox


    The key thing is that you must use a "machine"id of "pc-1.3" or it will say your hardware is not supported. Additionally you MUST use a virtio disk or you will get a ks_pre.sh error as soon as the install starts (a look at logs will show it can't find a disk). This is funny because even though the OS finds the disk and an fdisk -l shows it, it looks like the script looks for a /dev/vda device (virtio) and nothing else, so if you didn't use Virtio as you........
  • VBOX VirtualBox How To Import Raw .img Disk File


    What you need to do if you have taken a dd or real raw image dump of a hard disk: VBoxManage convertdd windows2019-eval-template.img windows2019.vdi --format VDI The .img is the raw dd dump and the .vdi is the output file. --format VDIspecifies to output to .vdi format If you are in a pinch you can always use qemu-kvm binary and manually specify the .img as your disk and i........
  • Linux partprobe/partx cannot access last and 4th partition


    On a test machine Iwas never able to access to a newly created 4th partiton. As we can see there are dev devices for everything but the 4th partition. The normal "partprobe" or "kpartx" or kernel being told to rescan the block device didn't help (only a reboot did). fdisk -l /dev/sda Disk /dev/sda: 750.2 GB, 750156374016 bytes 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 91201 cylinders Units........
  • VMWare ESXi 6.7 SSH/PowerShell CLI Commands


    [root@localhost:~] BootModuleConfig.sh echo host-ind nfcd........
  • Migrate Centos 7 from Single HDD to mdadm RAID 10 array:


    Done on Centos 7.3 very important as clearly based on older guides it was a lot easier and more simpler! Hint do not use grub2-install! If you have trouble booting after this check this CentOS mdadm RAID booting/fixing guide. One huge caveat if you are an oldschool user or sysadmin who has avoided UEFIbooting The nor........
  • Migrating from Linux Mint 17.2 mdadm RAID array to a new one (because I upgraded to larger drives).


    1.) Replicate the number of partitions in your new drives. gdisk /dev/sda gdisk /dev/sdb I created 3 partitions of the same same size. partition #1: +1G (/boot) partition #2: +60G (swap) partition #3: rest of it (/) #note if you are using GPT/gdisk you need to create separate a partition at least 1MB in size (in my case I would a 4th partition and mark it type ef02).........
  • fdisk wq causes hung process


    I created a new partition table on a newly plugged in device and it caused fdisk to hang (even force kill does not work). It also may be a bad drive or some other issue because fdisk -l hangs after the first 2 HDDs (totaly of 8 HDDs on this system): [1232879.903596] INFO: task fdisk:27176 blocked for more than 120 seconds. [1232879.903607] Tainted: P&nbs........
  • remove gpt partition linux


    sudo fdisk /dev/sdh WARNING: GPT (GUID Partition Table) detected on '/dev/sdh'! The util fdisk doesn't support GPT. Use GNU Parted. WARNING: The size of this disk is 8.0 TB (8001563221504 bytes). DOS partition table format can not be used on drives for volumes larger than (2199023255040 bytes) for 512-byte sectors. Use parted(1) and GUID partition table format (GPT). The device presents a l........
  • Linux How To Recover Partition Table from Kernel and Restore Centos/Debian etc..


    We've all done this at some point, you work on the wrong shell window and this was my first time making this mistake but I deleted a partition table in fdisk, recreated it and saved it with "wq" and even ran partprobe! If you haven't rebooted yet then you can still recover your partition table, otherwise you're in big trouble. Fortunately since it was a live system and in use the kernel still had to use the old table like below:........
  • Is this partition table correct starting and ending partition on same cylinder?


    Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System /dev/sdc1 1 132 1060256+ fd Linux raid autodetect Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary. Partition 1 does not start........
  • Centos installing grub problems suspect gpt problem


    grub> root (hd0,0) root (hd0,0) Filesystem type is ext2fs, partition type 0xfd grub> setup (hd0) setup (hd0) But if you do: root (hd1,0) setup (hd1) it does work, I think hd0/sda had a GPT partition that was not removed properly (what I did was just dd bs=512 count=1 the partition table from another drive since the partition table should be identical). Checking if "/boot/grub/........
  • How to manually mount Linux disk image partition without using losetup


    In this case we want to mount partition #2 fdisk -lu Centos-6.6-x86_64.img You must set cylinders. You can do this from the extra functions menu. Disk Centos-6.6-x86_64.img: 0 MB, 0 bytes 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 0 cylinders, total 0 sectors Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes Device Boot&nbs........
  • bash script Get Model and Serial Number of All Hard Disks in Server on Linux


    for disk in `fdisk -l|grep "Disk /dev"|awk '{print $2}'|sed s/://g`; do echo "$disk" && smartctl -d ata -a "$disk" -T permissive|grep -iE 'Device Model:|Serial Number:' echo "---------------" done *Make sure you have smartctl from smartmon tools installed Sample output: /dev/sdc Device Model: ........
  • Centos 6 how to guide convert LVM non-RAID into mdadm 1/10 RAID array live without reinstalling


    Here is the scenario you or a client have a remote machine that was installed as a standard/default minimal Centos 6.x machine on a single disk with LVM for whatever reason. Often many people do not know how to install it to a RAID array so it is common to have this problem and why reinstall if you don't need to? In some cases on a remote system you can't easily reinstall without physical or KVM access. So in this case you add a second physical or disk or already ha........
  • How to script fdisk in Linux bash


    (echo n; echo p; echo 1; echo 1; echo; echo wq) | fdisk /dev/sdb The above would make a new partition 1 on /dev/sdb and save the changes to disk, you can of course make changes to do almost anything in fdisk.........
  • Howto Convert Xen Image to KVM


    #count=10000 makes an image of 10000MB make sure your image is at least the same as your existing dd if=/dev/zero of=yourimage.img bs=1M count=10000 # losetup -fv newimage.raw # fdisk -cu /dev/loop0 # kpartx -a /dev/loop0 # dd if= of=/dev/mapper/loop0p1 # e2fsck -f /dev/mapper/loop0p1 # resize2fs /dev/mapper/loop0p1 # a lot of guides tell you to edit /etc/fst........
  • How to view GPT/EFI Windows Partition Table


    fdisk unfortunately can't do this and I'm not sure if there's any updated version that handles it but parted can do it. Here's an example of how to do it: parted /dev/sda print 1 17.4kB 1024MB 1024MB ntfs primary 2 1024MB 16144MB 15120MB ntfs primary /dev/sda1 would be the first partiton /dev/sda2 would be the second partition You can then just access them like any other normal partition.........
  • kvm cannot boot xen guest using lvm


    This booting error is because the Xen PV guest image uses the Xen kernel, this is not compatible with anything but a host running a Xen kernel. I did a kpartx -av virtual.img and then it created some partitions that showed up in fdisk. I mounted it and did a chroot into it and removed the xen kernel and installed a normal kernel but Xen still shows the same kernel in Grub (only the Xen one). This is strange but it seems like this Xen PV guest has some sort of hidden or........
  • mdadm: /dev/sdb1 not large enough to join array solution


    mdadm --manage /dev/md1 --add /dev/sdb1 mdadm: metadata format 00.90 unknown, ignored. mdadm: metadata format 00.90 unknown, ignored. mdadm: metadata format 00.90 unknown, ignored. mdadm: /dev/sdb1 not large enough to join array md1's first primary member /dev/sda3 has 57394 cylinders while the /dev/sdb1 has 57393 (1 less cylinder) which is why it won't work. fdisk -l /dev/sda3 Disk /dev/sda3: 47........
  • Samsung Galaxy Note Upgrade to ICS 4.0 microSDHC card not detected/dataloss after upgrading - possible solutions


    I backed up everything in the /mnt/sd_card directory thinking that some dataloss could occur for some reason but purposely left my microSDHC unbacked up thinking that "it won't touch that since it's external" and Samsung's and other manufacturers website even say this (that it won't be affected and not to worry etc). Apparently I was wrong, my microSD was "undetected" and asked to be formatted after the upgrade (there goes 3-months worth of family photos). No........
  • KVM QEMU and Xen how to mount disk images off-line and access data


    fdisk -lu VPS.img last_lba(): I don't know how to handle files with mode 81ed You must set cylinders. You can do this from the extra functions menu. Disk VPS.img: 0 MB, 0 bytes 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 0 cylinders, total 0 sectors Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes Device Boot Start End ........
  • mdadm RAID 1 adventures


    I separated the 2 drives in the RAID 1 array. 1 is the old one /dev/sda and is out of date, while the separated other one /dev/sdc was in another drive and mounted and used with more data (updated). I wonder how mdadm will handle this: usb-storage: device scan complete md: md127 stopped. md: bind md: md127: raid array is not clean -- starting background reconstruction raid1: raid set md127 active with 1 out of 2 m........
  • Install Mac OS X 10.4.6 Tiger on AMD32 VMWare


    *Note OS X is strange to install, I thought my HDD was not being detected by you just have to go to Diskutil and create a partition for the root filesystem and then close/move the Window and proceed with the install. After install Mac OS X 10.4.6 Tiger I get a black screen that says: b0 error Most people say the partition has to be marked as "active", actually that just means marked as "bootable". Instead of t........
  • Convert HDD/Hard Drive Partition(s) into non-RAID into RAID 1 using existing data without data loss and without reformatting.


    Before we start I take no responsibility for this, you should have a backup and if you make a mistake during this process you could wipe out all of your data. So backup somewhere else before starting this as a precaution, or make sure it's data you could afford to lose. The RAID 1 Setup (Hardware Wise) I've already setup my 2 x 1TB (Seagate) drives with identical partitions, make sure your new hard drive (the empty one) is setup like your curr........
  • Picking an FTPD (vsftpd) Server in Linux Centos/Debian


    I decided on using yum to help me decide even though I normaly use proftpd I decided to see what else I could find. yum search ftp Loaded plugins: fastestmirror Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile * rpmforge: ftp-stud.fht-esslingen.de * base: mirrors.netdna.com * updates: updates.interworx.info * addons: yum.singlehop.com * extras: mirrors.netdna.com rpmforge........
  • ntfs-3g Error/Fix/Solution - Unexpected sectors per cluster value (127). Failed to mount '/dev/sda1': Invalid argument The device '/dev/sda1' doesn't seem to have a valid NTFS. Maybe the wrong device is used? Or the whole disk instead of a


    ./ntfs-3g /dev/sda1 /mnt -o force Unexpected sectors per cluster value (127). Failed to mount '/dev/sda1': Invalid argument The device '/dev/sda1' doesn't seem to have a valid NTFS. Maybe the wrong device is used? Or the whole disk instead of a partition (e.g. /dev/sda, not /dev/sda1)? Or the other way around? This is happening on a system I've come across an HP 6930P running Windows XP Professional. The partition appears to be very norm........
  • Clustering Links


    Clustering LinksI thought this might be interesting for people with spare time. [b:6423c19973]Great clustering article from Linux Mag[/b:6423c19973] http://www.linux-mag.com/2003-11/clusters_01.html [b:6423c19973]General Linux cluster information[/b:6423c19973] http://www.gdargaud.net/Hack/ClusterNotes.html#HighA http://www.faqs.org/docs/Linux-HOWTO/Cluster-HOWTO.html#s3 http://www.yolinux.com/TUTORIALS/LinuxClustersAndFileSys........
  • Tyan S2735-8M Maximum Hard Drive Limit/Not Working/Doesn't work with 1TB 1000GB hard drives


    Inever saved any of the logs, but basically no matter what OS (Linux)I used, I could not get my 1000GB hard drive to work (Seagate SATA). The BIOS recognizes the drive and fdisk -l shows the hard drive as it should. The tricky thing is that different OS's will give you different results, but don't be fooled. You can't use these larger drives for long. Iwas getting all kinds of seek/IOerrors and also messages that the port could not be read.........
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