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    In today’s digital landscape, finding a reliable and secure Virtual Private Server (VPS) or Virtual Dedicated Server (VDS) goes beyond just comparing specs and prices. With increasing concerns over data privacy, security breaches, and government surveillance, the wisdom of choosing your VPS/VDS provider based on juri........
  • How To Do Linux Network Bonding Teaming in Mint Debian Ubuntu


    Bonding is an excellent way to get both increased redundancy and throughput. It is similar to the "Network Teaming" feature in Windows. There are a few different modes but we will use mode 6, I think it's the best of both worlds, as it is not just a failover, but it provides round robin, so you will get redundancy and load balancing. So if you have a 1G single port, you will have a combined throughput of 4G at this point. Just bear in mind that the true thr........
  • How To Create OpenVPN Server for Secure Remote Corporate Access in Linux Debian/Mint/Ubuntu with client public key authentication


    Why choose OpenVPN instead of a firewall appliance? OpenVPN can be a reliable and easy replacement for traditional hardware or just be an additional tool that your company uses so that the firewall can focus on its job rather than acting as a VPNappliance at the same time. When comparing OpenVPN with traditional firewal........
  • CentOS 8 how to convert to a bootable mdadm RAID software array


    The cool thing here is that we only need 1 drive to make a RAID 10 or RAID 1 array, we just tell the Linux mdadm utility that the other drive is "missing" and we can then add our original drive to the array after booting into our new RAID array. Step#1 Install tools we need yum -y install mdadm rsync Step #2 Create your partitions on the drive that will be our RAID array Here I assume it is /dev........
  • Centos 7 How to install Mysql/Mariadb


    yum -y install mariadb-server systemctl start mariadb mysql_secure_installation Now we need to secure our install and set the MariaDB root password: The lines you need to act on are marked in bold shown with the answer you need. mysql_secure_installation NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MariaDB SER........
  • Cisco Unified Communications Manager / CUCM IP 8.6,10,12 Install Error Solution


    Install Errors on Version 12: This error happened on QEMU emulator version 2.11.1 pve-qemu-kvm_2.11.1-5 on Proxmox/Debian but installing on QEMU.12 on Centos 6 did not produce the error. *Update it is not related to the OS or QEMU version. This happened in Centos 6 too after a second install. What really causes this even though you successfully install........
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    Cisco's CUCM (Cisco Unified Communication Manager) is a system that combines voice, video, data and mobile products into a single unified management suite. At its core, the CUCMis like a "Super PBX" that controls the flow of all communications through an organization even single or multiple site deployments. Cisco's CUCMmakes communication more effective and simple through centralized management and unification of communications resources.........
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    What Is Active Directory? Active Directory is essentially an enhanced, centralized database with a set of objects that make user management, authorization, and data management simpler. Active Directory is synonymous with "Domain Controllers" where a single "domain" often consists of multiple sites and members of the domain. Multiple domains can also be joined to belong to a tree ( a collection of domains). And the highest layer is the forest whi........
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    2017-01-12 14:25:36 529 (ERROR): The installer was unable to verify that your kernel supports IPv6. 2017-01-12 14:25:36 530 (ERROR): The message received when trying to create an IPv6 socket was Address already in use 2017-01-12 14:25:36 531 (ERROR): Please ensure that the ipv6 module is enabled and loaded in your kernel. 2017-01-12 14:25:36 532 (FATAL): Exiting... Solution This happened........
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    This can happen because port 80 is not open, or your license has expired and/or your IP is out of date and also if the license server itself from cPanel is having issues. In most cases as long as you have a valid license the following command will solve it: /usr/local/cpanel/cpkeyclt Updating cPanel license...Done. Update succeeded. Building global cache for cpanel...Done Cannot........
  • guestmount to mount a disk image


    guestmount -a yourimage.img -m /dev/sda1 --ro /mountpoint Change "yourimage.img"to the actual disk image. Change "/dev/sda1" to the device on the disk image you want to mount. --ro is specified only if you don't want write access (good to ensure you don't mess anything up if you just want to recover data).........
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    LSi Megaraid At first it was configured as a RAID 0, then I deleted the Virtual Disk Group. I thought both drives would be shown and detected in Linux as sda and sdb but it actually shows nothing. To make them work you have to hit Ctrl+R before the system boots (when prompted) and create a Virtual Disk Group. In my case I created each one as RAID 0 (with a single drive only) as I just wanted JBOD but there is no such option or default in these Dell Pe........
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    The best way I could figure out is to use another guest of some sort to do this, while assigning the disk that needs to be resized to the same guest. So say we have /dev/xvda as the guests drive and we've booted it up. We also have /dev/xvdb (this is going to be the image/disk to be resized). In this case it's based on an ext3/4 image. Run e2fsck on it to ensure there are no filesystem errors. e2fsck /dev/xvdb........
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    CPT ERR: cc4c0800,28000 :Unknown image version: 304. Can't restore. This happens when you live migrate between OpenVZ servers with different kernels running, at least significantly different by date. There is no solution except to make sure you're running the same kernels on all machines, or at least not kernels that are much older or different (this is just a guess though, you should ensure all kernels are the same).........
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    I don't have a solution other than to use rsync, I used diff on about 1.7TB of data which includes hundreds of thousands if not millions of small files to ensure nothing was missing or corrupt. diff didn't even get past the first large directory without spitting that error out. Keep in mind I used "diff -r" because that means recursive, otherwise it wouldn't compare all files and subdirectories and would be a false way of doing it.........
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    Forbidden You don't have permission to access / on this server. [Sun Jan 23 15:28:12 2011] [crit] [client 96.44.31.12] (13)Permission denied: /www/vhosts/domain.com/httpdocs/.htaccess pcfg_openfile: unable to check htaccess file, ensure it is readable Solution I've done a chmod 755 .htaccess and index.php and restarted Apache That wasn't the only issue, the issue was the httpdocs direc........
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    Install the "Editors" and "Net" groups that will give you rsync, ssh, ssh-keygen and cron. The trickiest thing that I keep forgetting about each time is you have to run "cron-config" which adds the cron service to Windows, and without doing that obviously no cron jobs will be run thus making automatic backups impossible. Warning about rsync/cygwin and using the -a archive switch. It's a good thing I caught this because it doesn't work ri........
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    One of the purposes of rsync is to backup whole filesystems and archive them but how can you do that properly and restore things to normal if all permissions and ownerships are not preserved from your root filesystem? It's not desirable to have everything running as root, especially not just for an rsync. The Easy rsync preserve permission solution for non-root users sudo is the answer and all you have to do is edit /etc/sudoers At the end o........
  • chroot into an off-line Linux version using a LiveCD/USB


    It's not just as simple as running the chroot command, you need to ensure the /proc and /dev entries are passed through and populated to the chroot environment. Step 1 - Mount Your Off-lineOS mount /dev/sda1 /mnt Step 2 - Mount Proc mount -t proc none /mnt/proc Step 3 - Mount Dev Most guides will tell you to use this: mount -o bind /dev /mnt//dev but that doesn't work for some reason in many cases: mount: wron........
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