You can read lots of posts about this issue but there is not much information about why this is the case or how grub determines the root= device name. Some even suggest modifying grub.cfg manually which is a disaster as the next kernel update will cause grub to revert back to the device name.
For most people this won't be an issue but those using template system, automated deployments and working in embedded may run into this issue with custom embedded and created minimal kernel........
The easiest way for the current running kernel is:
update-initramfs -u -k `uname -r`
You could change -k to a specific kernel name if for some reason the current is not running (eg. if you are chrooted or in recovery mode).
If you want to update all kernels then use "-k all"
update-initramfs -k all -u
update-initramfs: Generating /boot/initrd.img-5.4.0-162-generic........
You probably didn't do an "update-grub" and grub no longer has any proper menu entries, but before you can fix it let's try to get grub booting anyway.
If you get this lovely black grub screen here's how you can get things booting.
In my case I have a gpt partition with partition 1 and 2. Partion 1 is just my EFI / ESPand partion 2 /dev/sda2 is my root which includes /boot.
You will have to adjust this if you had a separate /boot partition.........
Why choose OpenVPN instead of a firewall appliance?
OpenVPN can be a reliable and easy replacement for traditional hardware or just be an additional tool that your company uses so that the firewall can focus on its job rather than acting as a VPNappliance at the same time.
When comparing OpenVPN with traditional firewal........
Traditionally kernels were numbered starting from 0 but by default the "new style" of grub boot loading considers each subkernel item to be different so if you have 3 entries for 4.40-148 rather than counting for 1.
To get the expected behavior let's show this example and how we can boot it
We do a grep on menuentry in /boot/grub/grub.cfg to see all of the bootable kernels rather than scrolling through loads of extra entries we don't care about (thou........
Install Errors on Version 12:
This error happened on QEMU emulator version 2.11.1 pve-qemu-kvm_2.11.1-5
on Proxmox/Debian but installing on QEMU.12 on Centos 6 did not produce the error.
*Update it is not related to the OS or QEMU version. This happened in Centos 6 too after a second install.
What really causes this even though you successfully install........
The strange thing is that usually the first install or two will work on any new machine but then it suddenly won't. I had this experience on QEMU 2.13 on a different machine. There is something finicky or buggy about the CUCM installer even when choosing the same virtual hardware specs.
QEMU PC emulator version 0.12.1 (qemu-kvm-0.12.1.2-2.506.el6_10.1), Copyright (c) 2003-2008 Fabrice Bellard
Do you hate it when your ISPhas old cached records because of a high TTLon the DNS record of the relevant domain? In plain English this means you often can't connect to a site or service because your ISP's DNS servers haven't gotten word of the new IP address (probably because they haven't checked). There are also some that are notorious for ignoring TTL and not updating records for days!
But if you are lucky and smart enough to have your own Linux based DNS se........
A quick check in /dev/pts shows a lot of entries but what are they for?:
0 10 12 14 16 18 2 21 23 25 27 29 30 32 4 6 8 ptmx
1 11 13 15 17 19 20 22 24 26 28 3 31 33 5 7 9
Basically they are pseudo-termi........
INFO [07-19|12:11:51] Imported new block receipts count=590 elapsed=8.440s bytes=74117699 number=4870906 hash=6bc60b…934753 ignored=0
INFO [07-19|12:11:57] Imported new state entries count=499 elapsed=9.963ms processed=71076 pending=1526 retry=2&nbs........
MySQL will silently truncate a larger INT than capable.
Check MySQL's own documentation here:
As we can see the maximum size of INT (which is the most commonly used) is 2147483647
A lot of coders make this mistake by using very large values such as 9999999999 but it would actually truncate to 2147483647 which is the maximum size of an INT. This is dangerous beca........
This through me for a loop when I would do a cp -rf or mv -f nothing would get overwritten even if piping y or yes to the command.
Type alias and you'll see why:
alias cp='cp -i'
alias l.='ls -d .* --color=auto'
alias ll='ls -l --color=auto'
alias ls='ls --color=auto'
alias mv='mv -i'
alias rm='rm -i'
The -i is a safeguard against messing things up but however does mess things up worse when you know what........
Essentially a program I was running for mining did not terminate properly with Ctrl+C it is listed as defunct and cannot be killed, kernel is tainted and normal tricks to disable the port are impossible the dev and sys entries for the device cannot be browsed or interacted with in any form without a lockup of the request. The only solution is to reboot due to the kernel taint as far as I can find so far.
[1130246.811056] INFO: task minerd:21861 blocked for more th........
Done on Centos 7.3 very important as clearly based on older guides it was a lot easier and more simpler! Hint do not use grub2-install!
If you have trouble booting after this check this CentOS mdadm RAID booting/fixing guide.
One huge caveat if you are an oldschool user or sysadmin who has avoided UEFIbooting
To grant the IP 192.168.2.4 to user mysqlguy
GRANT ALL ON *.* TO 'mysqlguy'@'192.168.2.4';
To allow any IPfor mysqlguy just use the wildcard % character
GRANT ALL ON *.* TO 'mysqlguy'@'%';
Also note it is normal and fine to have multiple entries in the mysql table.........
sudo fdisk /dev/sdh
WARNING: GPT (GUID Partition Table) detected on '/dev/sdh'! The util fdisk doesn't support GPT. Use GNU Parted.
WARNING: The size of this disk is 8.0 TB (8001563221504 bytes).
DOS partition table format can not be used on drives for volumes
larger than (2199023255040 bytes) for 512-byte sectors. Use parted(1) and GUID
partition table format (GPT).
The device presents a l........
Iwill start by saying I think I know what caused this boot-time error on Linux Mint but should also apply to Debian and Ubuntu.
I changed my BIOS time to several hours in the past to match the current time, but this caused Linux to think there were incorrect filesystem times.
The problem is that it seems when you hit this I am not sure what is happening, it doesn't seem to be doing fsck and hangs without prompting the user.
What I have found is that........
grub> root (hd0,0)
Filesystem type is ext2fs, partition type 0xfd
grub> setup (hd0)
But if you do:
it does work, I think hd0/sda had a GPT partition that was not removed properly (what I did was just dd bs=512 count=1 the partition table from another drive since the partition table should be identical).
Checking if "/boot/grub/........
For the first two entries comment out #mirrorlist and uncomment #baseurl and then it worked
openvz yum problem Centos 6.5 cannot find file on mirror:
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Determining fastest mirrors
* openvz-kernel-rhel6: mirrors.ustc.edu.cn
* openvz-utils: mirrors.ustc.edu.cn
mysqldump: Couldn't execute 'show create table `general_log`': SHOW command denied to user 'user'@'localhost' for table 'general_log' (1142)
One of my clients almost found out the hard way, here is an unlikely situation that happened.
1.) Years ago the client had another VPS to which they backed up a BLOG nightly to an .sql file, what they forgot is that the file also contained all databases (they used the --all-databases option but forgot). So imagi........
If you move your hard drive(s) around to other computers/servers, you'll find that your eth0 keeps getting higher, the first time it will become eth1 and then eth2 etc and even higher if your server has dual or quad NICs. The reason is that udevd basically assigns eth0 tot he first NIC it finds and remembers it, if it encounters a NIC with a differentMAC, it assigns it one higher (eg. eth1).
See the example below, I have eth2 now so how doI fix it?........
Step #1 - Create Wrapper Script
It may be hard to find by Googling by it's really quite simple and quicker than reading dozens of man page entries.
sed -n 5p somefile.txt
Just replace the 5 with whatever line you want to be printed.........
mod_status is a great way to track down the source of high CPU usage and to find what vhost/script is the cause of it.
It gives you a live view of bandwith usage, CPU usage, and memory usage broken down by domain/vhost and script/URI.
Deny from all
This is an easy fix and highlights a huge issue again with Linux and Flash still not playing nicely/working as well as Windows yet.
Solution - Go to "about:config" and disable the two entries (set them to false):
I couldn't figure out why this wouldn't work, a test script in the root of my htdocs folder worked fine.
Within some subdirectories the same code would produce different base64 results but I didn't know hwy.
Zip file size: 6888 bytes, number of entries: 92
error [/tmp/archive.zip]: missing 242827681 bytes in zipfile
(attempting to process anyway)
error [/tmp/archive.zip]: attempt........
I wasted a lot of time wondering why I could never find those packages.
Check the /etc/yum.conf file and at the bottom look for the "exclude=" line.
Below is what I found in mine
exclude=apache* httpd* mod_* mysql* MySQL* da_* *ftp* exim* sendmail* php* bind-chroot*
Just remove those entries or uncomment that line and you'll get access to the missing applications.........
It's not just as simple as running the chroot command, you need to ensure the /proc and /dev entries are passed through and populated to the chroot environment.
Step 1 - Mount Your Off-lineOS
mount /dev/sda1 /mnt
Step 2 - Mount Proc
mount -t proc none /mnt/proc
Step 3 - Mount Dev
Most guides will tell you to use this: mount -o bind /dev /mnt//dev but that doesn't work for some reason in many cases:
I can never actually remember the order and the number of parameters so here they are:
day of month
day of week
Backing MySQL Databases
Backing Up/Dumping All Mysql Databases To A Single File
mysqldump --all-databases -u admin -p > allmysqldatabases.sql
The "-all-databases" clause is pretty obvious isn't it? It means that it will backup all databases.
The "-u admin" means login using the user "admin", if you h........