The strange thing is that usually the first install or two will work on any new machine but then it suddenly won't. I had this experience on QEMU 2.13 on a different machine. There is something finicky or buggy about the CUCM installer even when choosing the same virtual hardware specs.
QEMU PC emulator version 0.12.1 (qemu-kvm-0.12.1.2-2.506.el6_10.1), Copyright (c) 2003-2008 Fabrice Bellard
chroot which stands for change root allows you to virtually operate in another operating system even though you haven't booted it. It is commonly used to deploy new distros, applications and to fix a broken Linux/Unix install or prep a new system image without having to physically boot the drive or disk.
So in this example let's say we have a drive that has a Linux OS installed on /dev/sdb1 and we have mounted this partition on /mnt/sdb1
The key point is to edit the &quo........
It was broken because of this package for xorg I installed:
Just remove it even if you have to chroot from a live USB/CD:
sudo apt-get remove xserver-xorg-core-hwe-18.04........
The key thing here is to know the actual partition that is encrypted.
Often in Linux Mint's installer that ends up being partition 5 or /dev/sda5
sudo cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sda5 anynamehere
You will then be prompted for your irrecoverable passphrase:
Enter passphrase for /dev/sda5:
If all goes well it won't say anything further. If it says ""No key available with this passphr........
When using strip_tags and html_entity_decode with PHPit often breaks and produces annoying diamonds with question marks.
It is probably because of characters like these:
… (looks like 3 dots but it is a single weird character).
’ (looks like a normal apostraphe but it is not)
” (looks like a normal double quote but it is not).
An easy way to sort this out is to copy the above and search in an ASCII table to extend the functional........
systemd is like the service manager for your Centos and other modern Linux distributions (including Debian/Mint/Ubuntu) allows you to enable services, stop them, restart them, check their status and even reboot your system.
The key commands or arguments you will use with systemctl are the following:
list-units [PATTERN...] List loaded units
In Centos 7 the days of editing the "kernel"line and adding "single"are gone. On top of that sometimes after a new install passwords do not work, maybe you forgot your password or for some other reason you need to break in or fix your system? It could also be because you can't mount your root / or some other /etc/fstab error and many other errors.
1. Edit your grub settings and find the linux16 /vmlinu........
Sep 12 18:16:25 vps pluto: ERROR: asynchronous network error report on eth0 (sport=500) for message to 22.214.171.124 port 20640, complainant 126.96.36.199: Connection refused [errno 111, origin ICMP type 3 code 3 (not authenticated)]
Some say changing the "leftprotoport=17/%any" will fix this but I have not found this to be the case.
Essentially it means at least one end is blocking the ipsec packets. Sometimes the %any allows an alt........
Iam not sure why this is happening neither the hostnode or VM changed. All I did was reboot the hostnode and startup the Centos VM again, also note it happened with the original kernel on the VM and also the latest 6.9 kernel as of this writing as shown below.
Host Node: Centos 6.9
Same result in any kernel above........
#if you have nvidia make sure you install the nvidia-cuda-toolkit so hardware acceleration can be used
tar -jxvf ffmpeg-3.3.2.tar.bz2
install prefix /usr/local
source path ........
Done on Centos 7.3 very important as clearly based on older guides it was a lot easier and more simpler! Hint do not use grub2-install!
One huge caveat if you are an oldschool user or sysadmin who has avoided UEFIbooting
The normal way will not work here if your Centos was using UEFI. Newer systems use it by default.
The easiest way to check is to do an fdisk -l if your sy........
This is a 8TB Seagate external USB 3.0 device apparently newer kernels use a module called "UAS" instead of "USB Storage" which causes issues as a lot of devices are not properly supported in UAS mode by the kernel driver. The solution some say is to disable UAS specifically for your USB device but I'd rather just disable UAS altogether.
Solution blacklist UAS: *do not do this it does not work and just causes your USB 3.0........
In short the two drives in the array were /dev/sdd and /dev/sde. The kernel sees they were unplugged and have gone down as you can see below.
mdadm caught the first one being unplugged /dev/sde and disabled the missing drive. However when the final drive that was part of the array is unplugged it didn't notice at all. Instead it complains about an IO error later for drives that the kernel knows do not exist anymore.
[45817.162728] ata4: exception........
1.) Replicate the number of partitions in your new drives.
I created 3 partitions of the same same size.
partition #1: +1G (/boot)
partition #2: +60G (swap)
partition #3: rest of it (/)
#note if you are using GPT/gdisk you need to create separate a partition at least 1MB in size (in my case I would a 4th partition and mark it type ef02).........
Here is the scenario you or a client have a remote machine that was installed as a standard/default minimal Centos 6.x machine on a single disk with LVM for whatever reason. Often many people do not know how to install it to a RAID array so it is common to have this problem and why reinstall if you don't need to? In some cases on a remote system you can't easily reinstall without physical or KVM access.
So in this case you add a second physical or disk or already ha........
Iwas surprised to see that Linux Mint at the latest 17.2 version still has NO mdadm installer option, and worse the installer will not be able to create a proper booting environment even when you do install it.
How to setup mdadm in Linux mint LiveCD
apt-get install mdadm
# partition as you need and then create your mdadm devices
# create your SWAP md0
mdadm --create /dev/md0 --level=1 --raid-devices=2 /dev/sda1 /d........
#count=10000 makes an image of 10000MB make sure your image is at least the same as your existing
dd if=/dev/zero of=yourimage.img bs=1M count=10000
# losetup -fv newimage.raw
# fdisk -cu /dev/loop0
# kpartx -a /dev/loop0
# dd if= of=/dev/mapper/loop0p1
# e2fsck -f /dev/mapper/loop0p1
# resize2fs /dev/mapper/loop0p1
# a lot of guides tell you to edit /etc/fst........
[3805108.257042] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] 1953525168 512-byte hardware sectors: (1.00 TB/931 GiB)
[3805108.257052] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Write Protect is off
[3805108.257054] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Mode Sense: 00 3a 00 00
[3805108.257066] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Write cache: enabled, read cache: enabled, doesn't support DPO or FUA
[3805108.257083] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] 1953525168 512-byte hardware sectors: (1.00 TB/931 GiB)
[3805108.257090] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Write Protect is off........
mount -o bind /proc /sda2/proc
mount -o bind /dev/ /sda2/dev
mount -o bind /sys /sda2/sys
mint / # mount -o bind /proc /sda2/proc
mint / # mount -o bind /dev/ /sda2/dev
mint / # mount -o bind /sys /sda2/sys
mint / # chroot /sda2
mint / # cd ~
mint ~ # ls
mint ~ # cd /
mint / # ls
bin Desktop dev-temp home&nb........
This is a great way to upgrade your RAID array or move it/copy it to a new set of hard drives.
Eg. you have a current RAID 1 array on older/slower drives.
Just add at least 1 of the new drives to the array, update grub/install it and then boot into it. Then you have a transparent data migration that is fully synchronized.
mdadm --grow /dev/md126 --raid-devices 3
md127 : active raid1 sdc1........
I've got one of these for testing projects from work at home and got more than I bargained for with the time I've spent on it due to the storage handing/Perc 6/i cards.
My particular model came with the following:
2U Rack Mount Server with Rails
2xOpteron 2373 EE (Quad Core, there is a 6-core version that can be found at times)
2 x 250GB Seagate SATA
2 x Dell Perc 6/i (horrible and a nightmare to work........
This booting error is because the Xen PV guest image uses the Xen kernel, this is not compatible with anything but a host running a Xen kernel.
I did a kpartx -av virtual.img and then it created some partitions that showed up in fdisk.
I mounted it and did a chroot into it and removed the xen kernel and installed a normal kernel but Xen still shows the same kernel in Grub (only the Xen one).
This is strange but it seems like this Xen PV guest has some sort of hidden or........
This happened during a RAID array check:
SMART says both drives pass the test, but I'm doing a long test on them and hopefully this is not a hardware error.
Apr 3 04:22:01 remote kernel: md: syncing RAID array md2
Apr 3 04:22:01 remote kernel: md: minimum _guaranteed_ reconstruction speed: 1000 KB/sec/disc.
Apr 3 04:22:01 remote kernel: md: using maximum available idle IO bandwidth (but not more than 200000 KB/sec) for reconstruction.
Webmin Setup Centos 5:
[root@host ~]# --2011-01-06 21:48:20-- http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/webadmin/webmin/1.530/webmin-1.530-1.noarch.rpm?r=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.webmin.com%2Fstandard.html
Resolving downloads.sourceforge.net... 216.34.181.........
Moving to RAID was a pain.
What you have to do is the following from an existing install:
Create your mdadm RAID 1 array on your spare hard drive.
Start it with the missing disk.
rsync the entire contents of your current / to the md partition.
Here's a good way of doing it:
rsync -Pha --exclude=/proc/* --exclude=/sys/* --exclude=/mnt/* /. /mnt/md2........
From a LiveCD or if you're doing something like converting your non-RAID install to mdadm here's how you would chroot properly (you have to mount your proc, sys and dev on the running system/LiveCD to your chroot environment if you want things to work right, especially if you need to run update-initramfs due to a driver change etc..)
*replace "path" with your mount/chroot path
mount -o bind /proc /mnt/path/proc
mount -o bind /dev/ mnt/pa........
For a standalone system the solution is simple, just use the same version of Windows a copy a good version of:
C:windowsSecurityDatabasesecedit.sdb from another computer.
Then you should be able to login again without getting the nasty message "Local policy does not permit you to log on interactively."
Of course you will probably need a way of accessing the filesystem off-line in order to get to it such as a Linux boot disc.
This was done on Centos butI think it's easier on Debian machines, the paths that it is set to use are tailored towards Debian, so there is some fiddling that needs to be done on Centos.
This is for chrooting ssh, but jailkit has other uses than just SSH jails but I won't cover them in this writeup.
1. Install jailkit
yum install jailkit
2. Setup Jail Home
chown root:root /home/ja........
I wasted a lot of time wondering why I could never find those packages.
Check the /etc/yum.conf file and at the bottom look for the "exclude=" line.
Below is what I found in mine
exclude=apache* httpd* mod_* mysql* MySQL* da_* *ftp* exim* sendmail* php* bind-chroot*
Just remove those entries or uncomment that line and you'll get access to the missing applications.........
I installed 5.5 with a 300GB RAID 1 partition (boot is also on this partition). It booted up fine the first few times until after I used a Live CD and accessed the array, and it became named /dev/md127 for some reason.
Now whenI boot into CentOS I get a kernel panic and different errors, once I got "invalid superblock", even though the array is fine (it didn't happen again, probably because I was sure to dismount and stop the mdadm array properly).
It's not just as simple as running the chroot command, you need to ensure the /proc and /dev entries are passed through and populated to the chroot environment.
Step 1 - Mount Your Off-lineOS
mount /dev/sda1 /mnt
Step 2 - Mount Proc
mount -t proc none /mnt/proc
Step 3 - Mount Dev
Most guides will tell you to use this: mount -o bind /dev /mnt//dev but that doesn't work for some reason in many cases:
Before we start I take no responsibility for this, you should have a backup and if you make a mistake during this process you could wipe out all of your data. So backup somewhere else before starting this as a precaution, or make sure it's data you could afford to lose.
The RAID 1 Setup (Hardware Wise)
I've already setup my 2 x 1TB (Seagate) drives with identical partitions, make sure your new hard drive (the empty one) is setup like your curr........
I decided on using yum to help me decide even though I normaly use proftpd I decided to see what else I could find.
yum search ftp
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
* rpmforge: ftp-stud.fht-esslingen.de
* base: mirrors.netdna.com
* updates: updates.interworx.info
* addons: yum.singlehop.com
* extras: mirrors.netdna.com
Basic Port ListingHopefully someone finds this useful or at least interesting.
Name Port Protocol Description
Small services ........