Is your /var/log/journal overweight and bloated? For example a decent install of Debian 11 with most applications and services ends up being about 4.9G with the journal taking a few gigs.
du -hs /var/log/journal/
By default in a lot of distributions there is no maximum size so it will keep growing. This is especially problematic for embedded distributions and devices, but is also a huge waste of sp........
The Best Docker Tutorial for Beginners
We quickly explain the basic Docker concepts and show you how to do the most common tasks from starting your first container, to making custom images, a Docker Swarm Cluster Tutorial, docker compose and Docker buildfiles.........
In our 2024 VPS Server/Cloud Buyer's Guide, we place the location of your VPS/hosting/server as one of the priorities that is often overlooked.
2024 Update - Datacent........
By default at least on Centos 7 nfs only allows 8 connections and starts 8 nfsd daemons.
To fix this edit this file:/etc/sysconfig/nfs
Edit the line "RPCNFSDCOUNT" (uncomment it so it looks like this:
In the example above we are setting 30 nfsd daemons to run (or in other words 30 connections are possible this way).........
The strange thing is that usually the first install or two will work on any new machine but then it suddenly won't. I had this experience on QEMU 2.13 on a different machine. There is something finicky or buggy about the CUCM installer even when choosing the same virtual hardware specs.
QEMU PC emulator version 0.12.1 (qemu-kvm-0.12.1.2-2.506.el6_10.1), Copyright (c) 2003-2008 Fabrice Bellard
Cisco's CUCM (Cisco Unified Communication Manager) is a system that combines voice, video, data and mobile products into a single unified management suite. At its core, the CUCMis like a "Super PBX" that controls the flow of all communications through an organization even single or multiple site deployments.
Cisco's CUCMmakes communication more effective and simple through centralized management and unification of communications resources.........
umask are the default permissions that are applied when a file or directory are created. To see this in action simply just "touch filename" or "mkdir somedir" and you'll see what default permissions are applied.
The first thing Ialways tell people you should know is to NEVER change the defaults unless you are making them more restrictive. But they work well and if you change the defaults you could end up creating a file without permission to read........
#mount the VCSA DVD
mount /dev/sr0 /mnt/cd
#alternatively you could mount the iso directly
mount -o loop vcsa.iso /your/mount/path
#for this purpose we are using the CLI installer on Linux
#no it's not going to be that easy you can't just run vcsa-deploy like that you need to use a template or configured .json file
Usage: vcsa-deploy [-h] [--version] [--supported-deploymen........
This happens because Dovecot limits the maximum IMAPconnections per IPto just 10. This may be fine for a single client side IPbut if an entire office or multiple users are behind one IPor a single heavy user is active then you will get bizarre errors in your e-mail clients such as "Password Incorrect" or similar in Thunderbird. It won't be obvious on the client side as to what the problem is and they will probably just think the server is misconfi........
This usually happens when you are using something like an INT and try to insert a larger valuethan the maximum which is larger than "2147483647"
On a practical term I have seen this and been guilty of this error when using scripts like PHPand generating large random numbers:
$hash = mt_rand(5,9999999999999);
Obviously that many 9's are more digits than the maximum of an INT resulting in that error. Change your code accord........
It's fairly simple to start or stop a check but I do wish mdadm's command had this built in. Sometimes it will do a check at the worst time causing the server to crawl to a halt.
Stop check on md126:
echo idle > /sys/block/md126/md/sync_action
Start check on md126:
echo check > /sys/block/md126/md/sync_action
MySQL will silently truncate a larger INT than capable.
Check MySQL's own documentation here:
As we can see the maximum size of INT (which is the most commonly used) is 2147483647
A lot of coders make this mistake by using very large values such as 9999999999 but it would actually truncate to 2147483647 which is the maximum size of an INT. This is dangerous beca........
add this style="background-size: contain;max-width: 100%; height: auto;" to your img code.
user@box:~$ sudo tune2fs -l /dev/md99
[sudo] password for user:
tune2fs 1.42.9 (4-Feb-2014)
Filesystem volume name:
Last mounted on: /mnt/md50
Filesystem UUID: 976a8655-2619-4587-878c-dab07f7b7652
Filesystem magic number: 0xEF53
Filesystem revision #: 1 (dynamic)
This is a VIA made VL805 USB 3.0 Chipset with 4-ports and MOLEX powered. First of all this unit was cheap at about only 9 USD with fast shipping. My biggest concern was if this was a quality unit and would it really give you full USB 3.0 speeds (some people reported with similar cards that for some weird r........
The only way I've found in mdadm to make 2 drives perform like a proper RAID 1 (eg. the read speed should be 2x that of a single drive) is to use the --layout=f2 (far 2).
mdadm raid10 performance issues.
Be very aware that mdadm seems to default to layout=n2 (which means near). In this scenario it means it is like mdadm RAID 1 performance (you get maximum read speeds of a single drive).
dd if=/dev/md126 of=/dev/null bs=1M cou........
When you start uploading larger images in Wordpress you have to make sure your maximum attachment size is large enough and that the execution time is not too short:
[Thu May 12 16:32:25 2016] [error] [client 10.10.5.2] PHP Fatal error: Maximum execution time of 30 seconds exceeded in /httpdocs/blog/wp-includes/class-wp-image-editor-gd.php on line 182
Solution Edit p........
Here is the scenario you or a client have a remote machine that was installed as a standard/default minimal Centos 6.x machine on a single disk with LVM for whatever reason. Often many people do not know how to install it to a RAID array so it is common to have this problem and why reinstall if you don't need to? In some cases on a remote system you can't easily reinstall without physical or KVM access.
So in this case you add a second physical or disk or already ha........
ProCurve J4903A Switch 2824
Software revision I.10.77
Copyright (C) 1991-2009 Hewlett-Packard Co. All Rights Reserved.
RESTRICTED RIGHTS LEGEND
Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is subject to restrictions........
An error occurred during a connection to site.com. SSL received a record that exceeded the maximum permissible length. (Error code: ssl_error_rx_record_too_long)
The page you are trying to view cannot be shown because the authenticity of the received data could not be verified.
Please contact the website owners to inform them of this problem.
When the above happens in our experience it is a misconfiguration of........
I never found a solution to do it live (nothing worked that I found) so it looks like a relogin is required.
Check your maximum file limit
This is different than your actual's user limit which you'll see below
Try and set it higher but it won't work
ulimit -n 65000........
/scripts/phpextensionmgr install PHPSuHosin
Updating md5sum list
Fetching http://httpupdate.cpanel.net/cpanelsync/easy/targz.yaml (connected:0).......(request attempt 1/12)...Resolving httpupdate.cpanel.net...(resolve attempt 1/65)...
Fetching http://httpupdate.cpanel.net/mirror_addr_list (connected:0).......(request attempt 1/3)......connecting to 22.214.171.124...@126.96.36.199......connected......receiving...100%......request success......Done........
I've got one of these for testing projects from work at home and got more than I bargained for with the time I've spent on it due to the storage handing/Perc 6/i cards.
My particular model came with the following:
2U Rack Mount Server with Rails
2xOpteron 2373 EE (Quad Core, there is a 6-core version that can be found at times)
2 x 250GB Seagate SATA
2 x Dell Perc 6/i (horrible and a nightmare to work........
OpenSSH_4.3p2, OpenSSL 0.9.8e-fips-rhel5 01 Jul 2008
debug1: Reading configuration data /etc/ssh/ssh_config
debug1: Applying options for *
debug1: Connecting to 192.168.1.253 [192.168.1.253] port 22.
debug1: Connection established.
debug1: permanently_set_uid: 0/0
debug1: identity file /root/.ssh/identity type -1
debug1: identity file /root/.ssh/id_rsa type 1
debug1: identity file /root/.ssh/id_d........
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
50G 1.2G 46G 3% /
tmpfs 7.8G 0&nb........
If you have a webserver and find you have high IO/lagginess MySQL is one of the first things to check. It turns out MySQL was my problem and it was creating a high load on my server, especially for IO.
How to Enable MySQL Slow Query Logging To Find Slow Performance/Queries
Add this anywhere under [mysqld]
log-slow-queries = /var/log/mysql/mysqlslowqueries.log
long_query_time = 1........
This happened during a RAID array check:
SMART says both drives pass the test, but I'm doing a long test on them and hopefully this is not a hardware error.
Apr 3 04:22:01 remote kernel: md: syncing RAID array md2
Apr 3 04:22:01 remote kernel: md: minimum _guaranteed_ reconstruction speed: 1000 KB/sec/disc.
Apr 3 04:22:01 remote kernel: md: using maximum available idle IO bandwidth (but not more than 200000 KB/sec) for reconstruction.
high IO wait
424 root 39 19 1900 848 552 D 0.0 0.0 0:00.91 updatedb
root 424 0.0 0.0 1900 848 ? DN Mar11 0:00 /usr/bin/updatedb -f sysfs?rootfs?bdev?proc?cpuset?binfmt_misc?debugfs?sockfs?usbfs?pipefs?anon_inodefs?futexfs?tmpfs?inotifyfs?eventp........
find what MPM Apache is using, it will either be using "worker" or "prefork"
Compiled in modules:
In my case it is "prefork"
Find the section that looks like this (by default one will normally exist for prefork and for worker, but in my case I only care a........
I think this will be useful to others because I have a server that kept crashing mysteriously during intense disk usage/RAID checks. It would only crash during the weekly RAID integrity check.
ThenI noticed during a reboot that not all CPUs were being brought up, as a result this actually creates much higher temperatures with the output I got from sensors, just booting the system produced higher than normal temperatures.
You can imagine that a full blown RAID check........
Jan 16 04:02:03 centosbox syslogd 1.4.1: restart.
Jan 16 04:07:34 centosbox kernel: INFO: task updatedb:20771 blocked for more than 300 seconds.
Jan 16 04:07:34 centosbox kernel: "echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/hung_task_timeout_secs" disables this message.
Jan 16 04:07:34 centosbox kernel: updatedb D F78BE050 6476 20771 20766&n........
This made me nervous but it's clearly a cronjob based on the messages log that happens every Sunday at about 4:22.
I actually can't find any evidence of it in cron.d cron.daily but it is there somewhere obviously.
What I don't get is why doesn't this cronjob do a datacheck like Ubuntu's cronscript does? When you unnecessarily rebuild the array you lose your redundancy during that point which makes your data extremely vulnerable.
*Update I did a grep of &q........
This doesn't seem to be widely known (maybe it's in some documentation that none of us read though)but there's an easy way to check the integrity of any mdadm array:
sudo echo check > /sys/block/md0/md/sync_action
-bash: /sys/block/md0/md/sync_action: Permission denied
sudo will never work, this only works as root since echo is not actually a binary/command. It is built-into bash.
This really made me nervous but notice the mdstat says "check". This is because in Ubuntu there is a scheduled mdadm cronscript that runs everyday on Sunday at 00:57 that checks your entire array. This is a good way because it prevents gradual but unnoticed data corruption which Inever thought of.
As long as the check completes properly you have peace of mind knowing that your data integretiy is assured and that your hard drives are functioning properly (I'........
Here is a RAID 1 partition (500GB Seagate & 2TB WD):
File Blk Num Avg Maximum Lat%&nbs........
This is a great way to use your ftp server space, for example on your web hosting account (althoughI believe many hosts don't allow storage like this), but if you have a VPS/Dedicated Server etc.., this would be perfect. Imagine how easy it is to work with an ftp account that you can just mount as a normal partition or directory in Linux, it would be great for backups etc..
curlftpfs - mount a ftp host as a local directory
I found that wattage/power consumption tool to be very useful, especially when you're worried that you're hitting the Power Supply's limit. You'll see very quickly that different CPU's, Graphics, Cards, HDDS use a wide range of energy. That tool can help you choose a build that won't stress or go over the maximum limits of your Power Supply.........
I thought there would be an error message or warning from MySQL in the case that the text you submit is greater than the allowed limit based on the field.
So essentially I submitted text that was about 120,000 characters long, whereas the limit of TEXT is just 65,535 characters! I almost lost half of my data/what I typed without knowing it!
I just altered the field type in my database from TEXT to LONGTEXT. I can't see how LONGTEXT wouldn't be long enough for MOST........
Before we start I take no responsibility for this, you should have a backup and if you make a mistake during this process you could wipe out all of your data. So backup somewhere else before starting this as a precaution, or make sure it's data you could afford to lose.
The RAID 1 Setup (Hardware Wise)
I've already setup my 2 x 1TB (Seagate) drives with identical partitions, make sure your new hard drive (the empty one) is setup like your curr........
I have no idea why but mkfs.ext3 defaults to a patheticlly small blocksize of 1024 bytes/1KB (kilobyte). That means the maximum filesize is ONLY 16GB! With 2KB/2048 bytes you get a 256 GB maximum filesize, and with 4KB/4096 bytes you get 2TB!
I finally noticed/paid attention to this after realizing that with rsync and scp that no file larger than 17GB could be transferred. I then realized it must be a file size limit on the partition.
Here is what tune2fs tol........
The folder I was trying to archive is about 72GB, but much like rsync at about 17GB it chokes because of the filesize. What's with so many common and essential Linux tools having such limitations? I guess it is likely that the authors never wrote their code with the idea that files would be so large but it's still very annoying. It's important to stay on top of these limitations on production servers because I didn't realize what happened until I checked the file with "........
Inever saved any of the logs, but basically no matter what OS (Linux)I used, I could not get my 1000GB hard drive to work (Seagate SATA). The BIOS recognizes the drive and fdisk -l shows the hard drive as it should.
The tricky thing is that different OS's will give you different results, but don't be fooled. You can't use these larger drives for long. Iwas getting all kinds of seek/IOerrors and also messages that the port could not be read.........