• Cisco Unified Communications Manager / CUCM IP 8.6,10,12 Install Error Solution


    Install Errors on Version 12: This error happened on QEMU emulator version 2.11.1 pve-qemu-kvm_2.11.1-5 on Proxmox/Debian but installing on QEMU.12 on Centos 6 did not produce the error. *Update it is not related to the OS or QEMU version. This happened in Centos 6 too after a second install. What really causes this even though you successfully install........
  • Ubuntu Debian Mint Linux SSHD OpenSSH Server Not Starting After Reboot Solution


    If you get error messages like this it is usually because /var/run/sshd does not exist. root@userbox:/# service sshd status ● ssh.service - OpenBSD Secure Shell server Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/ssh.service; enabled; vendor preset: enab Active: failed (Result: start-limit-hit) since Wed 2019-04-10 02:24:44 EDT; 1 Process: 511 ExecStartPre=/usr/sbin/sshd -t (code=exited, status=255)........
  • How To Use Letsencrypt SSL/TLS Encryption to Create Certificates without installing on the target machine


    For some reason, perhaps you don't want to run a daemon or let Letsencrypt have access to your production server. There is a way to use it like a normal CSR/CA setup in manual mode. ./letsencrypt-auto certonly --manual -d realtechtalk.com - www.realtechtalk.com   Eventually you will get prompted to create a certain path and file with certain data: Create a file containing just this data: Casdfasfadsfsad........
  • How To Boot Cisco CUCM UCSInstall 8.6, 10, 11 and 12 on KVM/Proxmox


    The key thing is that you must use a "machine"id of "pc-1.3" or it will say your hardware is not supported. Additionally you MUST use a virtio disk or you will get a ks_pre.sh error as soon as the install starts (a look at logs will show it can't find a disk). This is funny because even though the OS finds the disk and an fdisk -l shows it, it looks like the script looks for a /dev/vda device (virtio) and nothing else, so if you didn't use Virtio as you........
  • Linux Mint 18.2 Create Config File To Start Application Upon Login


    This is not about systemd/systemctl and not about "onboot" so there's no rc.local trick here but it's the GUI/Gnome etc when a user logs in that a command is launched. Put this in your home dir The .config/autostart directory is where Linux Mint/Ubuntu checks for autostart application config files mkdir -p ~/.config/autostart Create a new entry/file that starts an application........
  • DRBD Errors Caused By Physical Corruption


    In a RAID array I had a have periodically lost a drive here and there over the past several months. Iwas always able to readd and resync without losing data. However at some point it looks like some minor corruption happened and this makes DRBD unhappy. Using fsck did not help either. Dec 19 06:01:45 storageboxtest4 kernel: [19005.945890] EXT3-fs error (device drbd0): ext3_get_inode_loc: unable to read inode block - inode=22184379........
  • Linux What is umask (user mask) for file and directory creation permissions and how to calculate umask and change the defaults


    umask are the default permissions that are applied when a file or directory are created. To see this in action simply just "touch filename" or "mkdir somedir" and you'll see what default permissions are applied. The first thing Ialways tell people you should know is to NEVER change the defaults unless you are making them more restrictive. But they work well and if you change the defaults you could end up creating a file without permission to read........
  • vmkping -I vmk1 10.0.2.69 PING 10.0.2.69 (10.0.2.69): 56 data bytes sendto() failed (Host is down)


    [root@localhost:~] vmkping -I vmk1 10.0.2.69 PING 10.0.2.69 (10.0.2.69): 56 data bytes sendto() failed (Host is down) vsphere distributed switch vmotion not working [root@localhost:~] esxcfg-route -l VMkernel Routes: Network Netmask Gateway Interface&........
  • VMWare ESXi 6.7 SSH/PowerShell CLI Commands


    [root@localhost:~] BootModuleConfig.sh echo host-ind nfcd........
  • Centos 7 - How To Install NFS and Mount Remotely


    Server Side Config 1.) First install nfs-utils yum -y install nfs-utils 2.) Configure nfs share Create a directory for your NFS share mkdir /datastore Create your NFS share in /etc/exports echo "/datastore 10.220.101.0/24(rw,sync,no_root_squash)" >> /etc/exports systemctl restart nfs........
  • Install NFS (Network File System) On Debian Linux Ubuntu Mint Howto


    sudo apt-get install nfs-kernel-server #oops there are no exports so it won't startsudo /etc/init.d/nfs-kernel-server start* Not starting NFS kernel daemon: no exports. #we will use the /tmp/nfstestshare directory for our NFS share mkdir /tmp/nfstestshare #add it to /etc/exports (basically what NFS checks to determine what to make an NFS share) /tmp/nfstestshare 192.168.1.5(rw,sync,........
  • How To Install Windows Server 7 8 10 12 2008 2012 2014 2016 Servers Desktops using Linux tftp, dhcpd and samba


    It has been a big pain for a long-time to install Windows from a Linux environment. I used to run a windows install server and it never worked right for some reason (the install would fail on most servers). Before getting start be sure to setup your samba share so once you boot into WinPE you can mount the install for whatever Windows you want /etc/samba/smb.conf [smbwinstall] path = /tftpboot/images/winstall guest ok = yes........
  • Centos How To Update to Glibc 2.14 Plus


    Centos 6 requires GLIBC 2.12 however a lot of new programs you would want to compile may need a newer glibc. You can't remove the old glibc since the whole OS is based on it but you can install the updated glibc alongside it and do an export pointing to your updated GLIBC. mkdir ~/glibc_install; cd ~/glibc_install wget http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/glibc/glibc-2.14.tar.gz........
  • Install Windows From a Linux TFTP Server instead of using WDS Solution


    yum -y install samba vi /etc/samba/smb.conf https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/boot/syslinux/syslinux-6.03.zip mkdir syslinux;cd syslinux;unzip syslinux-6.03.zip mkdir -p /tftpboot/libs/ cp bios/com32/modules/linux.c32 /tftpboot/libs/ cp bios/com32/libutil/libutil.c32 /tftpboot/libs/ cp bios/com32/lib/libcom32.c32 /tftpboot/libs/ #add lib path echo "PATH libs" >> /tftpboot/pxeli........
  • How to find and mount mdadm arrays automatically


    A great way if you have a bunch of drives and mdadm connected and are looking for backups/archives and don't know what is where! for md in `cat /proc/mdstat|grep md[0-99]|awk '{print $1}'`; do mkdir /mnt/$md; mount /dev/$md /mnt/$md; done........
  • ffmpeg Linux Mint download, compile and install howto


    #if you have nvidia make sure you install the nvidia-cuda-toolkit so hardware acceleration can be used wget http://ffmpeg.org/releases/ffmpeg-3.3.2.tar.bz2 tar -jxvf ffmpeg-3.3.2.tar.bz2 cd ffmpeg-3.3.2/ ./configure --disable-yasm install prefix /usr/local source path ........
  • Migrate Centos 7 from Single HDD to mdadm RAID 10 array:


    Done on Centos 7.3 very important as clearly based on older guides it was a lot easier and more simpler! Hint do not use grub2-install! One huge caveat if you are an oldschool user or sysadmin who has avoided UEFIbooting The normal way will not work here if your Centos was using UEFI. Newer systems use it by default. The easiest way to check is to do an fdisk -l if your sy........
  • Linux Mint Intel Screen Tearing Horizontal Line Solution Fix


    sudo mkdir -p /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/ sudo vi /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-intel.conf Type "i" and enter the following: Section "Device" Identifier "Intel Graphics" Driver "intel" Option &........
  • Linux Mint Install Netboot PXE Guide Howto


    *Update so this doesn't work it must be something to do with the path of nfs or something else but the installer fails with "Installer crashed" at the end whereas with the CD/USB it works. This assumes you've already installed and configured a separate PXE/DHCP server somewhere else and your /tftpboot directory is setup. This is for Linux Mint 18.1 but generally applies to most versions although you may have tro change things like "casper"........
  • xdebug easiest howto get going


    Just make sure you have php-xdebug installed and edit your php.ini: [xdebug] xdebug.profiler_enable = 0 xdebug.profiler_enable_trigger = 1 xdebug.profiler_output_dir = "/tmp/xdebug/" xdebug.output_name = "cachegrind.out.%t-%s" Also make and set permissions on /tmp/xdebug: mkdir /tmp/xdebug chmod 777 /tmp/xdeb........
  • mencoder bmovl error vf_bmovl: Unknown command: ''. Ignoring.


    Based on this tutorial: http://www.linuxjournal.com/content/overlay-images-video-using-mplayer-and-mencoder mencoder -oac pcm -ovc raw -vf bmovl=0:0:tfifo -o $output $file vf_bmovl: Unknown command: ''. Ignoring. ........
  • Migrating from Linux Mint 17.2 mdadm RAID array to a new one (because I upgraded to larger drives).


    1.) Replicate the number of partitions in your new drives. gdisk /dev/sda gdisk /dev/sdb I created 3 partitions of the same same size. partition #1: +1G (/boot) partition #2: +60G (swap) partition #3: rest of it (/) #note if you are using GPT/gdisk you need to create separate a partition at least 1MB in size (in my case I would a 4th partition and mark it type ef02).........
  • K9 Mail Android Cannot See or View E-mails Disappear after reading - with Dovecot server. Solution


    This actually only happened after an e-mail server ran out of space due to run away log files. Normal Desktop clients were not affected. It appeared to be a bug in K9 mail but even reinstalling/wiping all settings did not fix it (read e-mails would still not reappear). This is moreso a bug in Dovecot where it probably messes up the index files. How do you fix this in Dovecot/your e-mail server? You need to delete the do........
  • mdadm kernel panic if trying to change --layout on a RAID10


    It is already known this is not possible mdadm --create /dev/md3 --level 10 --layout=f2 --raid-devices=2 /dev/sdc1 /dev/sdd1 mdadm: /dev/sdc1 appears to be part of a raid array: level=raid10 devices=2 ctime=Sat Dec 24 18:44:29 2016 mdadm: /dev/sdd1 appears to be part of a raid array: level=raid10 devices=2 ctime=Sat Dec 24 18:44:29 2016 Continue creating ar........
  • Ubuntu/Debian OpenVZ Template Problems No Networking and SSH not starting


    It all comes down to a bug essentially where you are running an older kernel that doesn't support the newer Debian templates. The solution is to update your OpenVZ kernel. Here are some symptoms of the problem/lack of kernel support: Ubuntu Template 12.04 requires a manual network start: service networking start sshd will not start: /usr/sbin/sshd PRNG is not seeded mknod /dev/random c 1 8........
  • Centos 6 how to guide convert LVM non-RAID into mdadm 1/10 RAID array live without reinstalling


    Here is the scenario you or a client have a remote machine that was installed as a standard/default minimal Centos 6.x machine on a single disk with LVM for whatever reason. Often many people do not know how to install it to a RAID array so it is common to have this problem and why reinstall if you don't need to? In some cases on a remote system you can't easily reinstall without physical or KVM access. So in this case you add a second physical or disk or already ha........
  • Installing zoneminder on Ubuntu/Debian Linux Howto


    sudo apt-get install zoneminder [sudo] password for one: Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required: libuser-perl python-evince kdebase-apps kwrite unixodbc libgnomeprint2.2-data python-soappy vgabios python-metacity hddtemp python-mediaprof........
  • Openvz OOM Centos Issue Memory Config Settings Solution


    Linux box13. 2.6.32-042stab076.5 #1 SMP Mon Mar 18 20:41:34 MSK 2013 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux even setting privvmpages to a specific setting DOES not affect "free -m" in containers. This is probably a kernel issue 23:36:29 up 159 days, 7:12, 4 users, load average: 0.42, 0.44, 0.33 [root@box13 ~]# free -m total&n........
  • CPanel suhosin install failed


    /scripts/phpextensionmgr install PHPSuHosin Updating md5sum list Fetching http://httpupdate.cpanel.net/cpanelsync/easy/targz.yaml (connected:0).......(request attempt 1/12)...Resolving httpupdate.cpanel.net...(resolve attempt 1/65)... Fetching http://httpupdate.cpanel.net/mirror_addr_list (connected:0).......(request attempt 1/3)......connecting to 74.50.120.123...@74.50.120.123......connected......receiving...100%......request success......Done........
  • mkdir: cannot create directory 'test': Disk quota exceeded - Solution


    mkdir: cannot create directory 'test': Disk quota exceeded You are out of inodes usually: df -i Filesystem Inodes IUsed IFree IUse% Mounted on /dev/simfs 200000 200000 0 100% / none ........
  • mkdir(): Too Many Links - The Solution and Problem in ext3 filesystems


    The error itself "mkdir(): Too Many Links" is not very useful, but I'll translate it into plain English. It means you've reached the filesystem's limit of how many directories can be created in a single directory. In this case for ext3 the limit is 32000 and it was exceeded. What's the solution? The simple solution is to move those directories into more subdirectories possibly sorting them by date, alphabet or numerically.........
  • Country List Names in HTML Select From


    This is useful for developing a lot of applications, I'm putting it here to keep it handy for myself and hopefully others: Choose CountryCanadaJapanUnited StatesUnited KingdomAfghanistan........
  • OpenVZ - how to manually restore a VPS from another host or backup


    There are 3 pieces that are required to restore and make it work (of course consider if any kernel modules need to re-enabled and if you need to change the IPs): Copy the vz/private/VEID directory to /vz/private Copy the /etc/vz/conf/VEID.conf to /etc/vz/conf/ mkdir /vz/root/VEID After that you should be able to see the VE in vzlist -a You should then be able to start it normally.........
  • kvm cannot boot xen guest using lvm


    This booting error is because the Xen PV guest image uses the Xen kernel, this is not compatible with anything but a host running a Xen kernel. I did a kpartx -av virtual.img and then it created some partitions that showed up in fdisk. I mounted it and did a chroot into it and removed the xen kernel and installed a normal kernel but Xen still shows the same kernel in Grub (only the Xen one). This is strange but it seems like this Xen PV guest has some sort of hidden or........
  • Setup PXE Boot using Centos and dhcpd, tftp and syslinux


    This is something I often setup for clients because it's very helpful for people in datacenters, this allows custom OS installs on demand, you can customize it more by using kickstart etc.. but here's a base I use before customizing more: This little script below will install everything you need to get booting by PXE Linux. It also assumes you set a local IP (be sure not to overwrite your existing IP) on eth0:0 (note the :0) as 192.168.1.10 and it........
  • Linux Out of Memory OOM Object Killer Solution "Out of memory: kill process 1955 (sshd) score 81 or a child"


    I had a system running a 128MB live CD image with 2.8 gigs of available RAM and the OOM kernel killer went crazy when using dd for more than 8 minutes and kept killing everything. I've read that this is due to a low-memory issue and paging in the kernel and 32-bit systems with lots of RAM. I even enabled swapspace on my LiveCD and the issue happened 25 minutes into dd rather than 8 minutes, so what gives? Also no swap space was ever used! cat /proc/s........
  • Drupal 6.2 Install and how to move install to root/non-subdirectory


    drup 6.2 install $cd drupgoodinst3883/ [ drupgoodinst3883]$ ls CHANGELOG.txt cron.php index.php INSTALL.pgsql.txt INSTALL.txt MAINTAINERS.txt modules robots.txt sites update.php xmlrpc.php COPYRIGHT.txt includes INSTALL.mysql.txt install.php LICENSE.txt misc&........
  • Openvz Enable TUN/TAP OpenVPN


    Make sure the module "tun" is loaded on the host. vzctl set 2000 --devnodes net/tun:rw --save *Note what's below is what OpenVZ says you need (but I've never had to do it) vzctl exec 2000 mkdir -p /dev/net vzctl exec 2000 mknod /dev/net/tun c 10 200 vzctl exec 2000 chmod 600 /dev/net/tun On the container test the device: when Something is wrong:........
  • Dovecot Enable SSL/TLS with your certificate


    Dovecot enable SSL (by default it uses an old expired cert if you choose pop3s and imaps as protocols) =================== Create Cert & Key: openssl req -new -x509 -nodes -days 1530 -out server.crt -keyout server.key mkdir /etc/mailssl chmod 700 /etc/mailssl cp server.* /etc/mailssl Edit /etc/dovecot.conf ssl_cert_file = /etc/mailssl/server.crt s........
  • Postfix Enable SSL/TLS with your certificate


    Create Cert & Key: openssl req -new -x509 -nodes -days 1530 -out server.crt -keyout server.key mkdir /etc/mailssl chmod 700 /etc/mailssl cp server.* /etc/mailssl Postfix SSL config Edit /etc/postfix/main.cf: #SSL stuff smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/mailssl/server.crt smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/mailssl/server.key To make smtps w........
  • Installing Webmin & Enabling SSL


    Webmin Setup Centos 5: wget http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/webadmin/webmin/1.530/webmin-1.530-1.noarch.rpm?r=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.webmin.com%2Fstandard.html&ts=1294339690&use_mirror=surfnet [1] 24229 [2] 24230 [root@host ~]# --2011-01-06 21:48:20-- http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/webadmin/webmin/1.530/webmin-1.530-1.noarch.rpm?r=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.webmin.com%2Fstandard.html Resolving downloads.sourceforge.net... 216.34.181.........
  • How to see what's inside your gziped CPIO'd initrd image


    Copy the initrd to somewhere else, say /tmp: mv initrd.img to initrd.gz *the mv to .gz is needed otherwise gunzip won't work/it will refuse to operate without the correct .gz extension gunzip initrd.gz cat initrd | cpio -idmv The last command extracts the contents of initrd to your present working directory. For 7z .lz initrd........
  • yum in Centos 5/Xen halts and exits suddenly


    yum exits in the middle The problem is this VPS seems to be an OpenVZ template from HyperVM. The only way to make it work was to disable i386 packages since this was an x64 kernel. That shouldn't be necessary but it was the only way to make yum stop quitting after the first package or two. I couldn't find any issue by checking the logs either. echo y|yum install vim-minimal telnet expect jwhois net-tools slocate iptables elinks gawk L........
  • jailkit for chroot ssh account security tutorial and fix for error


    This was done on Centos butI think it's easier on Debian machines, the paths that it is set to use are tailored towards Debian, so there is some fiddling that needs to be done on Centos. This is for chrooting ssh, but jailkit has other uses than just SSH jails but I won't cover them in this writeup. 1. Install jailkit yum install jailkit 2. Setup Jail Home mkdir /home/jail chown root:root /home/ja........
  • LUKS/cryptsetup Tutorial for Linux Hard Drive Partition Encryption


    This is based on Debian Linux but should apply equally to any *nix distro. Install LUKS/crypt-setup apt-get install cryptsetup Setup your LUKS Partition Of course change /dev/md2 with whatever partition you intend to use LUKS on. cryptsetup --verbose --verify-passphrase luksFormat /dev/md2 You'll be asked to verify your decryption password twice *DO NOT FORGET THIS PASSWORD AS IT IS NOT RECOVERABLE!........
  • Centos 5.5 RAID 1 boot issue


    I installed 5.5 with a 300GB RAID 1 partition (boot is also on this partition). It booted up fine the first few times until after I used a Live CD and accessed the array, and it became named /dev/md127 for some reason. Now whenI boot into CentOS I get a kernel panic and different errors, once I got "invalid superblock", even though the array is fine (it didn't happen again, probably because I was sure to dismount and stop the mdadm array properly). Here's what........
  • SSH Automatic/Passwordless Logon - Setup Public Key Encryption In Single Command


    This is a very simple solution, but most guides out there make you login twice (once to scp the key) and once to put the key in authorized_keys. There's no need for that. If you don't already have a ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub just type "ssh-keygen -t rsa" and keep hitting enter until it's done :) Just use this code to easily enable passwordless login with SSHD key=`cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub`;ssh user@192.168.5.25 "echo $key >> ~/.ssh/auth........
  • rsync halted froze Out of memory: kill process 7559 (rsync) score 635 or a child Killed process 7559 (rsync)


    Out of memory: kill process 7559 (rsync) score 635 or a child Killed process 7559 (rsync) I was surprised to see this in my dmesg whenmy rsync backup suddenly stalled/stopped. This system has 3 gigs of RAM and lots of free memory so I don't understand what is happening. rsync invoked oom-killer: gfp_mask=0x200d2, order=0, oomkilladj=0 Pid: 7600, comm: rsync Not tainted 2.6.24.2 #83 [] oom_kill_pr........
  • Convert HDD/Hard Drive Partition(s) into non-RAID into RAID 1 using existing data without data loss and without reformatting.


    Before we start I take no responsibility for this, you should have a backup and if you make a mistake during this process you could wipe out all of your data. So backup somewhere else before starting this as a precaution, or make sure it's data you could afford to lose. The RAID 1 Setup (Hardware Wise) I've already setup my 2 x 1TB (Seagate) drives with identical partitions, make sure your new hard drive (the empty one) is setup like your curr........
  • Linux EXT3 16GB-17GB maximum filesize issue solved/how to fix


    I have no idea why but mkfs.ext3 defaults to a patheticlly small blocksize of 1024 bytes/1KB (kilobyte). That means the maximum filesize is ONLY 16GB! With 2KB/2048 bytes you get a 256 GB maximum filesize, and with 4KB/4096 bytes you get 2TB! I finally noticed/paid attention to this after realizing that with rsync and scp that no file larger than 17GB could be transferred. I then realized it must be a file size limit on the partition. Here is what tune2fs tol........
  • PHP cannot access /usr/bin/openssl


    PHP cannot access /usr/bin/opensslI have verified the username that runs the process is able to access /usr/bin/openssl and it does exist but the PHP script is saying it doesn't exist: [code:1:1fd0f3abbe] if (!file_exists($OPENSSL)) { //echo "ERROR: OPENSSL $OPENSSL not foundn"; }[/code:1:1fd0f3abbe] I don't get itI can clearly see the contents of /usr/bin by using the PHP system fu........
  • How to extract files from RPM & SRPM files


    How to extract files from RPM & SRPM filesmkdir any_directory cd any_directory rpm2cpio /location/of/package.src.rpm | cpio -d -i This will extract all files, I find it especially useful if you want to manually compile the kernel source from the srpm........
  • sudo: Error dropping capabilities, aborting in Linux Centos 5.3


    For some reason Ikeep getting this error when trying to run a sudo command eg: sudo -u someuser somecommand sudo: Error dropping capabilities, aborting My version of sudo is:sudo-1.6.9p17-3.el5_3.1 and I've heard that version 1.7 fixes everything. The only thing is yum does not think sudo has any update. Iguess the new version has not been committed to the RPM repository yet. This is really a huge and ann........
  • OpenVZ/Virtuozzo Enable Fuse in Container


    To enable Fuse to work inside a OpenVZ container it's very simple (although some people say it can't be done). Remember that on your HN(HostNode) for OpenVZ, Fuse must be installed and the module must be loaded for this to work. In addition remember that you need the Fuse package installed inside the container of course. vzctl set 2000 --devices c:10:229:rw --save vzctl exec 2000 mknod /dev/fuse c 10 229 The part that most people forget........
  • mkisofs error "genisoimage: Directories too deep for 'Backup/My Documents/My Music/iTunes/Album Artwork/Local/5928CE9C1AFAC465/07/15' (7) max is 6."


    genisoimage: Directories too deep for 'Backup/My Documents/My Music/iTunes/Album Artwork/Local/5928CE9C1AFAC465/07/15' (7) max is 6. Some people said choosing the --iso-level-4 option will help. I just opted to add the "-D" switch and everything was fine.........
  • Configuring OCFS2 Clustered File System on Debian Based Linux including Ubuntu and Kubuntu


    There's a lot of information and guides on OCFS2 for RHELand Centos Linux but the package setup and configuration is slightly different and this has thrown some people off. Installing OC2FS You should install the following packages to get started: apt-get install ocfs2-tools ocfs2console Configure OC2FS In RHEL/Centos the main configuration file is located in /etc/sysconfig/o2cb However in Debian based Linux it is located........
  • Writing/Burning a data CD-R/DVD-R or DVD+RW in Unix/Linux


    There's a lot of outdated information and confusion for system administrator's out there. One annoying task for many an Administrator has been backing up data in Linux. You don't need any GUI tools such as K3B or GnomeBaker. Both are excellent tools but for veteran command line users working remotely, using the keyboard is a great and possibly automated way to save yourself pain and hassle. At a later date we'll cover how scripting can automatically backup certain........
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