• How To Add Windows 7 8 10 11 to GRUB Boot List Dual Booting


    Many times just doing an update-grub may find Windows and add it to grub, but a lot of times it won't. Create Windows in a custom grub entry like below: sudo vi /etc/grub.d/40_custom menuentry "Windows 10" { set root='(hd0,0)' chainloader + 1 } Change Windows 10 to whatever you want to call it. For example if it was for Windows 11 you'd probably want to ca........
  • How to access a disk with bad superblock Linux Ubuntu Debian Redhat CentOS ext3 ext4


    Have you ever tried mounting a partition that you exists but you get this error? mount: /mnt: can't read superblock on /dev/sda1. The superblock in this example was bad because the physical disk had corruption and bad blocks/sectors. However, the data was generally accessible and you can always try this trick below (with caution and no warranty). This is specifically for filesystems that place superblocks in multiple locations, which........
  • Install Grafana on Linux Debian Ubuntu Tutorial Guide


    First we need a few extra packages: apt update apt install -y adduser libfontconfig1 musl sudo wget https://dl.grafana.com/enterprise/release/grafana-enterprise_10.3.1_amd64.deb Install / Enable Grafana dpkg -i grafana-enterprise_10.3.1_amd64.deb dpkg -i grafana-enterprise_10.3.1_amd64.deb (Reading database ... 44309 files and directories currently installed.) Preparin........
  • Proxmox How To Rename Node Hostname Fix Solution


    Proxmox's documentation shows the following here. Which mainly just says change /etc/hosts and /etc/hostname with your new hostname. Here's what happens if you only do that: If you just do the above, you will find you have an inaccessible original hostname that contains those VMs and you cannot........
  • Linux Ubuntu Mint how to check nameservers when /etc/resolv.conf disabled solution


    You'll notice that /etc/resolv.conf contains dire warners on most Linux Desktops. # This file is managed by man:systemd-resolved(8). Do not edit. # # This is a dynamic resolv.conf file for connecting local clients to the # internal DNS stub resolver of systemd-resolved. This file lists all # configured search domains. # # Run "resolvectl status" to see details about the uplink DNS servers # currently in use........
  • Firefox how to restore and backup saved passwords and history which files/location


    The passwords are stored in the following locations on Unix/Linux: The directory is usually inside your home like this: ~/.mozilla/firefox logins.json contains the locations, username and password key*.db (usually then name could be key3.db or key4.db) Without the key file you will not see any passwords in Firefox as it is required to in order to decrypt the contents of logins.json........
  • How to upgrade to the latest Python version on Linux Ubuntu Debian Mint 3.11


    A lot of developers want to go to 3.11 because of the speed improvements, but most distros never have the latest Python version. Using the deadsnakes third party repo is the easiest way aside from compiling it yourself (which is safer and recommended): Step 1 - Add the repo apt-add-repository ppa:deadsnakes/ppa If you get an error about requests then install it:........
  • add bridge failed: Package not installed Linux Bridge Not working Ubuntu Mint Debian solution


    If you get this error in your logs: add bridge failed: Package not installed This error normally means one of two things. 1.) Is your brctl (bridge-utils) installed? On Mint/Debian check for "brctl". If it's not there do sudo apt install bridge-utils uml-utilities 2.) Is your bridge.ko (bridge kernel module loaded?). On some installs I have seen that you cannot modpro........
  • RHEL 8 CentOS 8, Alma Linux 8, Rocky Linux 8 System Not Booting with RAID or on other servers/computers Solution for dracut and initramfs missing kernel modules


    This seems to have changed for RHEL 8 where a normal dracut to update your initramfs creates a system that only boots for the running kernel. For example if you have Kernel 5 and then chroot into a RHEL 8 variant which uses kernel 4.18, and run dracut, it seems that by default the system will be unbootable. It is also the case that if you move your RAID array or drives to another server that it will be unbootable, because dracut seems to only include modules needed for the curre........
  • grub blank screen how to manually boot kernel and initrd Linux Ubuntu Debian Centos won't boot solution


    You probably didn't do an "update-grub" and grub no longer has any proper menu entries, but before you can fix it let's try to get grub booting anyway. If you get this lovely black grub screen here's how you can get things booting. In my case I have a gpt partition with partition 1 and 2. Partion 1 is just my EFI / ESPand partion 2 /dev/sda2 is my root which includes /boot. You will have to adjust this if you had a separate /boot partition.........
  • Cisco Switch / Router How To Restore Factory Default Settings


    1.) Make sure your conf register is 0x2102 Do show version and at the very end of the output you will see the Configuration register. show version Configuration register is 0x2102 If the config register is not 0x2102 then enter this command: r1#configure terminal r1(config)#config-register 0x2102 r1(config)#end 2.) Let's Erase the NVRAM/flash........
  • How To Tell Which Repository a Package Comes From Debian Mint Ubuntu


    Just use apt-cache policy to find the repo of a package: apt-cache policy lxd lxd: Installed: 3.0.3-0ubuntu1~18.04.2 Candidate: 3.0.3-0ubuntu1~18.04.2 Version table: *** 3.0.3-0ubuntu1~18.04.2 500 500 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/main amd64 Packages &nb........
  • Zoom Password Error 'That passcode was incorrect' - Solution Wrong Passcode Wrong Meeting Name


    Have you been given a Zoom password that the meeting owner says is correct but it doesn't work anymore or never works? If the meeting name says "Zoom Meeting" and it's not really named that (which most meetings are not), then the issue is usually that there is an initial password to be able to join, aside from the passcode. It basically means that Zoom has deauthenticated you randomly or maybe after X amount of uses, without clicking on the Join Meeting URL which contains a........
  • ?? Question Marks for time, permissions and size of a file?


    -?????????? ? ? ? ? ? shadow ----------. 1 root root 748 Jul 10 04:35 shadow- cat: shadow: Input/output error If you see this you are probably in big trouble, it could be a physical error or if it's a VM image that it is corrupted due to a physical error on the underlying disk/array/NAS or it could a........
  • How To Get Started on Ubuntu with gpt-2 OpenAI Text Prediction


    apt install software-properties-common add-apt-repository ppa:deadsnakes/ppa apt update apt install python3-pip apt install python3.7 curl gnupg python3.7-dev git ln -s /usr/bin/python3.7 /usr/bin/python3 pip3 install numpy keras_preprocessing curl https://bazel.build/bazel-release.pub.gpg | sudo apt-key add - echo "deb [arch=amd64] http://storage.googleapis.com/bazel-apt stable jdk1.8" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/bazel........
  • dd how to backup and restore disk images including compression with gzip


    dd is a very handy tool and there are some more practical things we can do. For example if we want to dump a 3TB drive and want to preserve it and only 200GB are being used on the 3TB we can save a lot of space with gzip. Backing Stuff up with dd How to Use dd to backup a raw hard drive and tar gzip at once Change /dev/sda to the drive you want to backup Change /mnt/extras........
  • sudoers file in /etc warning about comments/includes!


    If you see this in /etc/sudoers it is NOT a comment but an include. #includedir /etc/sudoers.d For example in Linux mint sudoers.d contains the following files: casper mintupdate README casper for example contains the following sudoers line: mint ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL So if you are messing ar........
  • Linux partprobe/partx cannot access last and 4th partition


    On a test machine Iwas never able to access to a newly created 4th partiton. As we can see there are dev devices for everything but the 4th partition. The normal "partprobe" or "kpartx" or kernel being told to rescan the block device didn't help (only a reboot did). fdisk -l /dev/sda Disk /dev/sda: 750.2 GB, 750156374016 bytes 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 91201 cylinders Units........
  • VMWare 6.7 VCSA VSphere ESXi Management SSO Install Guide on Linux using the CLI


    #mount the VCSA DVD mount /dev/sr0 /mnt/cd #alternatively you could mount the iso directly mount -o loop vcsa.iso /your/mount/path #for this purpose we are using the CLI installer on Linux cd /mnt/cd/vcsa-cli-installer/lin64 #no it's not going to be that easy you can't just run vcsa-deploy like that you need to use a template or configured .json file ./vcsa-deploy Usage: vcsa-deploy [-h] [--version] [--supported-deploymen........
  • Cannot create gradle for conversations


    The main issue is it looks like Java is not configured to accept the invalid ssl cert that is coming from the download location. Exception in thread "main" java.lang.RuntimeException: javax.net.ssl.SSLException: java.security.ProviderException: java.security.InvalidKeyException: EC parameters error export ANDROID_HOME=/home/user/Downloads/tools/ Conversations-master$ ./gradlew Downloading https://services.gradle.org/distributions/grad........
  • mysql how to reset passwords with a few commands


    The commands below will help you reset any mysql user password. use mysql; update user set password=PASSWORD('thenewpass') where User='theusername'; flush privileges; The first line says to use the "mysql" database which contains all the user info. the second update line sets the new password "thenewpass" for the u........
  • ERROR 2013 (HY000): Lost connection to MySQL server during query


    The solution is simple but strange, if you copy your /var/lib/mysql directory to another server and think it will work, be sure to check if you have /var/log/mysql and binary log files. If you do, the server will not work and will give you errors like below and crash without the proper log files. UPDATE user SET password=password("newpass") WHERE user='root'; flush privileges; ERROR 2013 (HY000): Lost connection to MySQL server durin........
  • bash script check if string contains text


    if [[ $variable = *windows* ]]; then echo "Our variable has windows" fi ........
  • bash script how to do wildcard string comparisons or matching


    This is a feature that works very well in bash and is easy to do: *Remember you need the double brackets for this specific test even though a normal if would not require them variable="hi there" if [[ "$variable" = hi* ]]; then echo "yes it contains hi" fi........
  • Centos scp or sftp program missing solution/what rpm provides them


    You need the "openssh-clients" package which contains sftp and scp. yum -y install openssh-clients........
  • Howto Convert Xen Image to KVM


    #count=10000 makes an image of 10000MB make sure your image is at least the same as your existing dd if=/dev/zero of=yourimage.img bs=1M count=10000 # losetup -fv newimage.raw # fdisk -cu /dev/loop0 # kpartx -a /dev/loop0 # dd if= of=/dev/mapper/loop0p1 # e2fsck -f /dev/mapper/loop0p1 # resize2fs /dev/mapper/loop0p1 # a lot of guides tell you to edit /etc/fst........
  • Linux Bash grep howto find line number that contains the result


    cat Xorginfo.txt|grep -nr "xserver-xorg" Result: 9: sudo apt-get remove --purge xserver-xorg 13: sudo apt-get install xserver-xorg 17: sudo dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xorg........
  • LSI MegaRAID Adventures, Guide and HowTo


    LSi Megaraid At first it was configured as a RAID 0, then I deleted the Virtual Disk Group. I thought both drives would be shown and detected in Linux as sda and sdb but it actually shows nothing. To make them work you have to hit Ctrl+R before the system boots (when prompted) and create a Virtual Disk Group. In my case I created each one as RAID 0 (with a single drive only) as I just wanted JBOD but there is no such option or default in these Dell Pe........
  • Bash weird variable whitespace missing when echoing printing


    Bash weird variable whitespace missing var=`cat tlds.csv|grep .ca,` # echo "var=:$var:" :ar=:.ca,Canada Why is the v missing in the last line? It should be :var=:.ca,Canada instead of :ar=:.ca,Canada I noticed a problem with the file with doing a "cat -v" on it. Here's the issue, the file contains carat M ^M: .vg,British Virgin Island........
  • Bad Hard Drive Slows Down Computer


    Here's a proven example of what a bad hard drive can do, it was technically functioning OKin a RAID array but the system became extremely low and the load become high and IOWAIT was even higher and I always thought it was a bad application. The truth is that this failing 1TBHitachi has slowly gotten worse and caused huge slowdowns, (eg. 100% load on Thunderbird waiting for e-mails to load etc..). After swapping it out, tabs change instantly, emails are not lagged, and........
  • KVM QEMU and Xen how to mount disk images off-line and access data


    fdisk -lu VPS.img last_lba(): I don't know how to handle files with mode 81ed You must set cylinders. You can do this from the extra functions menu. Disk VPS.img: 0 MB, 0 bytes 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 0 cylinders, total 0 sectors Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes Device Boot Start End ........
  • Upgade VBOX/Virtualbox 3.2 to 4.0 in Linux


    I was afraid to remove the virtualbox 3.2 package in Ubuntu because I didn't know if it might remove the .virtualbox folder which contains all of my VM data. I have a backup soI did remove the package and found everything was intact, so I installed and upgrade to VBOX 4.0 which seems to be a huge improvement, especially in UI performance.........
  • Santrex Review Scam Complaint - Stole My Money Fraud


    Santrex Review/Scam/Complaint Santrex never provided any working server, I believe it was just a dummy management Solus server because the server said it was booted but never connected to the console. I complained to them and eventually the support admitted the server was not working and to wait for 24 hours. I waited for 4-days, after which they sent an e-mail saying my service was being disabled for SPAM ...(when SolusVM shows 0kb of traffic). Th........
  • VPS Server Scam/Review/Complaint List


    These are the only two I've encountered but here is the low-end and note my story is not at all unique. In my case I was scammed out of money and did not receive any service at all from either company. Santrex Review/Scam/Complaint Santrex never provided any working server, I believe it was just a dummy management Solus server because the server said it was booted but never connected to the console. I complained to them and eventually the support adm........
  • Thunderbird/MBOX to IMAP/Maildir migration done easy with mb2md


    Convert MBOX Mail files into Maildir using Linux *You need perl an the TimeDate module Get the free Perl script mb2md from the project/author's site: wget http://batleth.sapienti-sat.org/projects/mb2md/mb2md-3.20.pl.gz gunzip mb2md-3.20.pl.gz #remember you need timedate or you'll get this error: ./mb2md-3.20.pl Can't locate........
  • Virtualmin/Webmin Postfix Error: The status of your system is being checked to ensure that all enabled features are available, that the mail server is properly configured, and that quotas are active ..


    Virtualmin Postfix Error: The status of your system is being checked to ensure that all enabled features are available, that the mail server is properly configured, and that quotas are active .. A problem was found with your Postfix virtual maps : No map sources were found in the Postfix configuration .. your system is not ready for use by Virtualmin. ........
  • mdadm won't boot due to fsck error


    Nov 29 20:17:58 ubuntu kernel: [ 1157.180789] md: md1 stopped. Nov 29 20:17:58 ubuntu kernel: [ 1157.180829] md0: unknown partition table filesystem not responding/reading properly with du or rsync (this needed an fsck). [ 2571.489217] EXT3-fs error (device md2): ext3_lookup: deleted inode referenced: 35923106 [ 2571.942299] EXT3-fs error (device md2): ext3_lookup: deleted inode referenced: 35923110 [ 2571.9568........
  • FUSE/Curlftpfs mount ftp account as drive partition in Linux


    This is a great way to use your ftp server space, for example on your web hosting account (althoughI believe many hosts don't allow storage like this), but if you have a VPS/Dedicated Server etc.., this would be perfect. Imagine how easy it is to work with an ftp account that you can just mount as a normal partition or directory in Linux, it would be great for backups etc.. Name curlftpfs - mount a ftp host as a local directory Synopsis........
  • Seagate Drive 500GB Drive Dying


    This drive is clearly on the way out, the Kernel knows it but I'm surprised that SMART is not concerned. I didn't blame Seagate for their past issues until now. This hard drive has hardly been used and has not even been powered on for a year according to SMART. Home page is http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net/ === START OF INFORMATION SECTION === Model Family: Seagate Barracuda 7200.11 Device........
  • Convert HDD/Hard Drive Partition(s) into non-RAID into RAID 1 using existing data without data loss and without reformatting.


    Before we start I take no responsibility for this, you should have a backup and if you make a mistake during this process you could wipe out all of your data. So backup somewhere else before starting this as a precaution, or make sure it's data you could afford to lose. The RAID 1 Setup (Hardware Wise) I've already setup my 2 x 1TB (Seagate) drives with identical partitions, make sure your new hard drive (the empty one) is setup like your curr........
  • Other Security Web Sites


    Other Security Web SitesSeveral websites actively track security issues. This list provides you with the major providers of security information on the Web. Many of these organizations also provide newsletters and mailings to announce changes or security threats: Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) CERIAS is an industry-sponsored center at Purdue University that is focused on technology and relate........
  • How to Track Down/Find Cause of Linux high disk iowait/wa


    top - 09:34:12 up 2 days, 20:57, 2 users, load average: 1.83, 1.99, 2.03 Tasks: 59 total, 2 running, 57 sleeping, 0 stopped, 0 zombie Cpu(s): 0.3%us, 0.0%sy, 0.0%ni, 0.0%id, 99.7%wa, 0.0%hi, 0.0%si, 0.0%st That 99.7% wa is iowait, it means the server is waiting for a process to complete an IOoperation or in plain English, there is a delay in........
  • Linux How to Search for text within any file using Linux/Unix - Use GREP


    It's actually very simple and "grep" makes it as easy as possible. I'll outline a few common scenarios and provide some examples. Say you want to search ALLfiles within the current directory (and inside/deeper) for the text "phpinfo()" grep -R "phpinfo()" * If you want to search only certain files such as only .txt you would do this instead: grep -R "phpinfo()" *.txt As you ca........
  • Viewing and Connecting to an SMB Samba Share on Windows/Linux/Unix


    This will give you the basic info needed to browse and connect to Samba shares from the command line. From the GUI of Gnome or KDE etc, it is pretty standard and straight forward. However, I've found very little guides on how to do it from the command line and if you're like me, a nerd who prefers command line for its simplicity and for remote use, this is the way to go. First get a list of all the Samba/SMB shares on the target. smbclient -L hostname........
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