• Linux How To Access Original Contents of Directory Mounted Debian Mint CentOS Redhat Solution


    Let's say you have a directory /mnt/raid which has files and directories inside it, but nothing is mounted to it. Then you mount a block device such as /dev/sdh to /mnt/raid Even though /mnt/raid has files and directories there, you can only see the mounted contents of /mnt/raid. How do we access the original contents? Just do a bind mount of the root filesystem to another location. mkdir /bindmount mount --bind / /b........
  • debootstrap how to install Ubuntu, Mint, Debian install


    In this example we install debian 10 with --variant=minbase which gives us a minimal/tiny install. Don't use variant if you want the full size install. mkdir /tmp/deb10files debootstrap --variant=minbase buster /tmp/deb10files/ Did you get an error? debootstrap --variant=minbase buster /home/theuser/VMs/deb10files/ You'll get this error if you make a directory in your home........
  • How To Install convert MBR Legacy booting GRUB to EFI from a non-EFI Linux Environment Ubuntu Mint Debian


    1.) Create your EFI/ESP Partition If you happen to have some free space on the drive already then this is easy, just create a new partition of at least 100M. The nice thing about the EFI spec is that it must just be in the first 2.2TB of space so for most users, it means you can simply resize the last partition(downsize it by 100M) and then add an EFI partition at the end. For example if you had this partition scheme: /dev/sda1 = /........
  • GlusterFS HowTo Tutorial For Distributed Storage in Docker, Kubernetes, LXC, KVM, Proxmox


    This can be used on almost anything, since Gluster is a userspace tool, based on FUSE. This means that all Gluster appears as to any application is just a directory. Applications don't need specific support for Gluster, so long as you can tell the application to use a certain directory for storage. One application can be for redundant and scaled storage, including for within Docker and Kubernetes, LXC, Proxmox, OpenStack, etc or just your image/web/video files or even da........
  • Ansible Tutorial - Playbook How To Install From Scratch and Deploy LAMP + Wordpress on Remote Server


    1. Let's work from an environment where we can install Ansible on. If you are using an older version of Linux based on Mint 18 or Ubuntu 16, you may want to get the PPA and get the latest version of Ansible that way: sudo apt install gpg sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ansible/ansible sudo apt update........
  • Linux can't boot/grub boot loader screen with no options solution


    Usually if you get the grub boot loader and it doesn't show any boot options, it's because grub was not installed correctly and/or the partition that it is supposed to be on has changed or does not exist. It can also happen if you install Linux to one drive, but the boot loader to another by accident, whether EFI or MBR/Legacy mode. You can normally fix your booting/bootloader/MBR/EFI it by chrooting into your root partition: #become root sudo su........
  • Juniper JunOS Command Overview and Howtos Switch, Router, Firewall Tutorial Guide


    Enable "cli" mode equivalent in JunOS cli Configure Mode configure So rather than going to the console on a Cisco switch and typing "enable" and then "conf t", the equivalent in JunOS is "cli" and "configure". How Do You Apply Changes You've Made? You can make all kinds of changes to the switch, but remember they are not........
  • apcupsd how to setup and monitor APC UPS units


    It really seems limited in that it can mainly give you the things you would see on the physical unit such as load etc.. wget https://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/apcupsd/apcupsd%20-%20Stable/3.14.14/apcupsd-3.14.14.tar.gz?r=https%3A%2F%2Fsourceforge.net%2Fprojects%2Fapcupsd%2Ffiles%2Flatest%2Fdownload&ts=1598115866 tar -zxvf apcupsd-3.14.14.tar.gz cd apcupsd-3.14.14 [root@somebox apcupsd-3.14.14]# ./conf........
  • access denied by acl file qemu-kvm: bridge helper failed


    /usr/libexec/qemu-kvm -enable-kvm -boot order=cd,once=dc -vga cirrus -m 4096 -drive file=~/23815135.img,if=virtio -usbdevice tablet -net nic,macaddr=DE:AD:BE:EF:D4:AB -netdev bridge,br=br0,id=net0 qemu-kvm: -usbdevice tablet: '-usbdevice' is deprecated, please use '-device usb-...' instead access denied by acl file qemu-kvm: bridge helper failed [root@CentOS-82-64-minimal 23815135]# /usr/libexec/qemu-kvm -enable-kvm -boot order=cd,once=dc -vga cirrus -........
  • How To Install python 3.4 3.5 and up on Linux with wine - Working Solution


    This is sure simple if you follow the guide but it took a lot of hacking around to make this work on Debian/Ubuntu! Now before you ask why bother running wine and python, the reason is because Python executables are NOT cross-platform. If you run pyinstaller in Linux, that binary will only run on Linux and the same if you do it in Windows. So it is preferable if you have a single environment that you can create Linux and Windows binaries from rather than running 2 separate........
  • MySQL 5.7 on Debian and Ubuntu - How To Reset Root Password


    MySQL on Debian versions is configured differently than the native local MySQL plugin so you will be disappointed when your password on the mysql client fails by default. Here is how you reset the MySQL root password the proper and "working way" #first we gracefully stop mysql sudo systemctl stop mysql; #then we forcefully kill any mysqld process just in case sudo killall -9 mysqld mysqld_safe;........
  • Convert and install to LUKS Encrypted Drive Ubuntu 18.04 19.10 Linux Mint and Debian Based Linux


    The reason for doing this is that the installer doesn't seem to work properly for LUKS and the server installer doesn't even support LUKS anymore. When you use the GUI install on Desktop for LUKS it won't boot and will just hang after you enter your password. So the only reliable way is to do it ourselves. 1.) Make a default minimal install of Ubuntu 2.) Have a secondary disk on the server or VM. 3.)........
  • CentOS 8 how to convert to a bootable mdadm RAID software array


    The cool thing here is that we only need 1 drive to make a RAID 10 or RAID 1 array, we just tell the Linux mdadm utility that the other drive is "missing" and we can then add our original drive to the array after booting into our new RAID array. Step#1 Install tools we need yum -y install mdadm rsync Step #2 Create your partitions on the drive that will be our RAID array Here I assume it is /dev........
  • Linux Ubuntu Debian Missing privilege separation directory: /var/run/sshd


    service sshd status ● ssh.service - OpenBSD Secure Shell server Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/ssh.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled) Active: failed (Result: start-limit-hit) since Wed 2019-10-02 11:07:54 EDT; 36s ago Process: 476 ExecStartPre=/usr/sbin/sshd -t (code=exited, status=255) Oct 02 11:07:54 box systemd[1]: Failed to start OpenBSD Secure Shell server. Oct 02 11:07:54 box sys........
  • Cisco Unified Communications Manager / CUCM IP 8.6,10,12 Install Error Solution


    Install Errors on Version 12: This error happened on QEMU emulator version 2.11.1 pve-qemu-kvm_2.11.1-5 on Proxmox/Debian but installing on QEMU.12 on Centos 6 did not produce the error. *Update it is not related to the OS or QEMU version. This happened in Centos 6 too after a second install. What really causes this even though you successfully install........
  • Ubuntu Debian Mint Linux SSHD OpenSSH Server Not Starting After Reboot Solution


    If you get error messages like this it is usually because /var/run/sshd does not exist. root@userbox:/# service sshd status ● ssh.service - OpenBSD Secure Shell server Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/ssh.service; enabled; vendor preset: enab Active: failed (Result: start-limit-hit) since Wed 2019-04-10 02:24:44 EDT; 1 Process: 511 ExecStartPre=/usr/sbin/sshd -t (code=exited, status=255)........
  • How To Use Letsencrypt SSL/TLS Encryption to Create Certificates without installing on the target machine


    For some reason, perhaps you don't want to run a daemon or let Letsencrypt have access to your production server. There is a way to use it like a normal CSR/CA setup in manual mode. ./letsencrypt-auto certonly --manual -d realtechtalk.com - www.realtechtalk.com   Eventually you will get prompted to create a certain path and file with certain data: Create a file containing just this data: Casdfasfadsfsad........
  • How To Boot Cisco CUCM UCSInstall 8.6, 10, 11 and 12 on KVM/Proxmox


    The key thing is that you must use a "machine"id of "pc-1.3" or it will say your hardware is not supported. Additionally you MUST use a virtio disk or you will get a ks_pre.sh error as soon as the install starts (a look at logs will show it can't find a disk). This is funny because even though the OS finds the disk and an fdisk -l shows it, it looks like the script looks for a /dev/vda device (virtio) and nothing else, so if you didn't use Virtio as you........
  • Linux Mint 18.2 Create Config File To Start Application Upon Login


    This is not about systemd/systemctl and not about "onboot" so there's no rc.local trick here but it's the GUI/Gnome etc when a user logs in that a command is launched. Put this in your home dir The .config/autostart directory is where Linux Mint/Ubuntu checks for autostart application config files mkdir -p ~/.config/autostart Create a new entry/file that starts an application........
  • Linux What is umask (user mask) for file and directory creation permissions and how to calculate umask and change the defaults


    umask are the default permissions that are applied when a file or directory are created. To see this in action simply just "touch filename" or "mkdir somedir" and you'll see what default permissions are applied. The first thing Ialways tell people you should know is to NEVER change the defaults unless you are making them more restrictive. But they work well and if you change the defaults you could end up creating a file without permission to read........
  • VMWare ESXi 6.7 SSH/PowerShell CLI Commands


    [root@localhost:~] BootModuleConfig.sh echo host-ind nfcd........
  • Centos 7 - How To Install NFS and Mount Remotely


    Server Side Config 1.) First install nfs-utils yum -y install nfs-utils 2.) Configure nfs share Create a directory for your NFS share mkdir /datastore Create your NFS share in /etc/exports echo "/datastore 10.220.101.0/24(rw,sync,no_root_squash)" >> /etc/exports systemctl restart nfs........
  • Install NFS (Network File System) On Debian Linux Ubuntu Mint Howto


    sudo apt-get install nfs-kernel-server #oops there are no exports so it won't startsudo /etc/init.d/nfs-kernel-server start* Not starting NFS kernel daemon: no exports. #we will use the /tmp/nfstestshare directory for our NFS share mkdir /tmp/nfstestshare #add it to /etc/exports (basically what NFS checks to determine what to make an NFS share) /tmp/nfstestshare 192.168.1.5(rw,sync,........
  • How To Install Windows Server 7 8 10 12 2008 2012 2014 2016 Servers Desktops using Linux tftp, dhcpd and samba


    It has been a big pain for a long-time to install Windows from a Linux environment. I used to run a windows install server and it never worked right for some reason (the install would fail on most servers). Before getting start be sure to setup your samba share so once you boot into WinPE you can mount the install for whatever Windows you want /etc/samba/smb.conf [smbwinstall] path = /tftpboot/images/winstall guest ok = yes........
  • Centos How To Update to Glibc 2.14 Plus


    Centos 6 requires GLIBC 2.12 however a lot of new programs you would want to compile may need a newer glibc. You can't remove the old glibc since the whole OS is based on it but you can install the updated glibc alongside it and do an export pointing to your updated GLIBC. mkdir ~/glibc_install; cd ~/glibc_install wget http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/glibc/glibc-2.14.tar.gz........
  • Install Windows From a Linux TFTP Server instead of using WDS Solution


    yum -y install samba vi /etc/samba/smb.conf https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/boot/syslinux/syslinux-6.03.zip mkdir syslinux;cd syslinux;unzip syslinux-6.03.zip mkdir -p /tftpboot/libs/ cp bios/com32/modules/linux.c32 /tftpboot/libs/ cp bios/com32/libutil/libutil.c32 /tftpboot/libs/ cp bios/com32/lib/libcom32.c32 /tftpboot/libs/ #add lib path echo "PATH libs" >> /tftpboot/pxeli........
  • How to find and mount mdadm arrays automatically


    A great way if you have a bunch of drives and mdadm connected and are looking for backups/archives and don't know what is where! for md in `cat /proc/mdstat|grep md[0-99]|awk '{print $1}'`; do mkdir /mnt/$md; mount /dev/$md /mnt/$md; done........
  • Linux Mint Intel Screen Tearing Horizontal Line Solution Fix Intel i915 Intel HD 4400 GPU Debian / Ubuntu


    sudo mkdir -p /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/ sudo vi /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-intel.conf On newer Ubuntu / Mint / Debian systems the file would go in: /usr/share/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-intel.conf Type "i" and enter the following: Section "Device" Identifier "Intel Graphics" Driver&n........
  • Linux Mint Install Netboot PXE Guide Howto


    *Update so this doesn't work it must be something to do with the path of nfs or something else but the installer fails with "Installer crashed" at the end whereas with the CD/USB it works. This assumes you've already installed and configured a separate PXE/DHCP server somewhere else and your /tftpboot directory is setup. This is for Linux Mint 18.1 but generally applies to most versions although you may have tro change things like "casper"........
  • xdebug easiest howto get going


    Just make sure you have php-xdebug installed and edit your php.ini: [xdebug] xdebug.profiler_enable = 0 xdebug.profiler_enable_trigger = 1 xdebug.profiler_output_dir = "/tmp/xdebug/" xdebug.output_name = "cachegrind.out.%t-%s" Also make and set permissions on /tmp/xdebug: mkdir /tmp/xdebug chmod 777 /tmp/xdeb........
  • Migrating from Linux Mint 17.2 mdadm RAID array to a new one (because I upgraded to larger drives).


    1.) Replicate the number of partitions in your new drives. gdisk /dev/sda gdisk /dev/sdb I created 3 partitions of the same same size. partition #1: +1G (/boot) partition #2: +60G (swap) partition #3: rest of it (/) #note if you are using GPT/gdisk you need to create separate a partition at least 1MB in size (in my case I would a 4th partition and mark it type ef02).........
  • K9 Mail Android Cannot See or View E-mails Disappear after reading - with Dovecot server. Solution


    This actually only happened after an e-mail server ran out of space due to run away log files. Normal Desktop clients were not affected. It appeared to be a bug in K9 mail but even reinstalling/wiping all settings did not fix it (read e-mails would still not reappear). This is moreso a bug in Dovecot where it probably messes up the index files. How do you fix this in Dovecot/your e-mail server? You need to delete the do........
  • mdadm kernel panic if trying to change --layout on a RAID10


    It is already known this is not possible mdadm --create /dev/md3 --level 10 --layout=f2 --raid-devices=2 /dev/sdc1 /dev/sdd1 mdadm: /dev/sdc1 appears to be part of a raid array: level=raid10 devices=2 ctime=Sat Dec 24 18:44:29 2016 mdadm: /dev/sdd1 appears to be part of a raid array: level=raid10 devices=2 ctime=Sat Dec 24 18:44:29 2016 Continue creating ar........
  • Centos 6 how to guide convert LVM non-RAID into mdadm 1/10 RAID array live without reinstalling


    Here is the scenario you or a client have a remote machine that was installed as a standard/default minimal Centos 6.x machine on a single disk with LVM for whatever reason. Often many people do not know how to install it to a RAID array so it is common to have this problem and why reinstall if you don't need to? In some cases on a remote system you can't easily reinstall without physical or KVM access. So in this case you add a second physical or disk or already ha........
  • Installing zoneminder on Ubuntu/Debian Linux Howto


    sudo apt-get install zoneminder [sudo] password for one: Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required: libuser-perl python-evince kdebase-apps kwrite unixodbc libgnomeprint2.2-data python-soappy vgabios python-metacity hddtemp python-mediaprof........
  • CPanel suhosin install failed


    /scripts/phpextensionmgr install PHPSuHosin Updating md5sum list Fetching http://httpupdate.cpanel.net/cpanelsync/easy/targz.yaml (connected:0).......(request attempt 1/12)...Resolving httpupdate.cpanel.net...(resolve attempt 1/65)... Fetching http://httpupdate.cpanel.net/mirror_addr_list (connected:0).......(request attempt 1/3)......connecting to 74.50.120.123...@74.50.120.123......connected......receiving...100%......request success......Done........
  • mkdir: cannot create directory 'test': Disk quota exceeded - Solution


    mkdir: cannot create directory 'test': Disk quota exceeded You are out of inodes usually: df -i Filesystem Inodes IUsed IFree IUse% Mounted on /dev/simfs 200000 200000 0 100% / none ........
  • mkdir(): Too Many Links - The Solution and Problem in ext3 filesystems


    The error itself "mkdir(): Too Many Links" is not very useful, but I'll translate it into plain English. It means you've reached the filesystem's limit of how many directories can be created in a single directory. In this case for ext3 the limit is 32000 and it was exceeded. What's the solution? The simple solution is to move those directories into more subdirectories possibly sorting them by date, alphabet or numerically.........
  • OpenVZ - how to manually restore a VPS from another host or backup


    There are 3 pieces that are required to restore and make it work (of course consider if any kernel modules need to re-enabled and if you need to change the IPs): Copy the vz/private/VEID directory to /vz/private Copy the /etc/vz/conf/VEID.conf to /etc/vz/conf/ mkdir /vz/root/VEID After that you should be able to see the VE in vzlist -a You should then be able to start it normally.........
  • Setup PXE Boot using Centos and dhcpd, tftp and syslinux


    This is something I often setup for clients because it's very helpful for people in datacenters, this allows custom OS installs on demand, you can customize it more by using kickstart etc.. but here's a base I use before customizing more: This little script below will install everything you need to get booting by PXE Linux. It also assumes you set a local IP (be sure not to overwrite your existing IP) on eth0:0 (note the :0) as 192.168.1.10 and it........
  • Drupal 6.2 Install and how to move install to root/non-subdirectory


    drup 6.2 install $cd drupgoodinst3883/ [ drupgoodinst3883]$ ls CHANGELOG.txt cron.php index.php INSTALL.pgsql.txt INSTALL.txt MAINTAINERS.txt modules robots.txt sites update.php xmlrpc.php COPYRIGHT.txt includes INSTALL.mysql.txt install.php LICENSE.txt misc&........
  • Openvz Enable TUN/TAP OpenVPN


    Make sure the module "tun" is loaded on the host. vzctl set 2000 --devnodes net/tun:rw --save *Note what's below is what OpenVZ says you need (but I've never had to do it) vzctl exec 2000 mkdir -p /dev/net vzctl exec 2000 mknod /dev/net/tun c 10 200 vzctl exec 2000 chmod 600 /dev/net/tun On the container test the device: when Something is wrong:........
  • Dovecot Enable SSL/TLS with your certificate


    Dovecot enable SSL (by default it uses an old expired cert if you choose pop3s and imaps as protocols) =================== Create Cert & Key: openssl req -new -x509 -nodes -days 1530 -out server.crt -keyout server.key mkdir /etc/mailssl chmod 700 /etc/mailssl cp server.* /etc/mailssl Edit /etc/dovecot.conf ssl_cert_file = /etc/mailssl/server.crt s........
  • Postfix Enable SSL/TLS with your certificate


    Create Cert & Key: openssl req -new -x509 -nodes -days 1530 -out server.crt -keyout server.key mkdir /etc/mailssl chmod 700 /etc/mailssl cp server.* /etc/mailssl Postfix SSL config Edit /etc/postfix/main.cf: #SSL stuff smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/mailssl/server.crt smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/mailssl/server.key To make smtps w........
  • How to see what's inside your gziped CPIO'd initrd image


    Copy the initrd to somewhere else, say /tmp: mv initrd.img to initrd.gz *the mv to .gz is needed otherwise gunzip won't work/it will refuse to operate without the correct .gz extension gunzip initrd.gz cat initrd | cpio -idmv The last command extracts the contents of initrd to your present working directory. For 7z .lz initrd........
  • jailkit for chroot ssh account security tutorial and fix for error


    This was done on Centos butI think it's easier on Debian machines, the paths that it is set to use are tailored towards Debian, so there is some fiddling that needs to be done on Centos. This is for chrooting ssh, but jailkit has other uses than just SSH jails but I won't cover them in this writeup. 1. Install jailkit yum install jailkit 2. Setup Jail Home mkdir /home/jail chown root:root /home/ja........
  • LUKS/cryptsetup Tutorial for Linux Hard Drive Partition Encryption


    This is based on Debian Linux but should apply equally to any *nix distro. Install LUKS/crypt-setup apt-get install cryptsetup Setup your LUKS Partition Of course change /dev/md2 with whatever partition you intend to use LUKS on. cryptsetup --verbose --verify-passphrase luksFormat /dev/md2 You'll be asked to verify your decryption password twice *DO NOT FORGET THIS PASSWORD AS IT IS NOT RECOVERABLE!........
  • SSH Automatic/Passwordless Logon - Setup Public Key Encryption In Single Command


    This is a very simple solution, but most guides out there make you login twice (once to scp the key) and once to put the key in authorized_keys. There's no need for that. If you don't already have a ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub just type "ssh-keygen -t rsa" and keep hitting enter until it's done :) Just use this code to easily enable passwordless login with SSHD key=`cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub`;ssh user@192.168.5.25 "echo $key >> ~/.ssh/auth........
  • How to extract files from RPM & SRPM files


    How to extract files from RPM & SRPM filesmkdir any_directory cd any_directory rpm2cpio /location/of/package.src.rpm | cpio -d -i This will extract all files, I find it especially useful if you want to manually compile the kernel source from the srpm........
  • sudo: Error dropping capabilities, aborting in Linux Centos 5.3


    For some reason Ikeep getting this error when trying to run a sudo command eg: sudo -u someuser somecommand sudo: Error dropping capabilities, aborting My version of sudo is:sudo-1.6.9p17-3.el5_3.1 and I've heard that version 1.7 fixes everything. The only thing is yum does not think sudo has any update. Iguess the new version has not been committed to the RPM repository yet. This is really a huge and ann........
  • Configuring OCFS2 Clustered File System on Debian Based Linux including Ubuntu and Kubuntu


    There's a lot of information and guides on OCFS2 for RHELand Centos Linux but the package setup and configuration is slightly different and this has thrown some people off. Installing OC2FS You should install the following packages to get started: apt-get install ocfs2-tools ocfs2console Configure OC2FS In RHEL/Centos the main configuration file is located in /etc/sysconfig/o2cb However in Debian based Linux it is located........
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