Index 1 Feature: ipbasek9
Period left: Life time
License Type: Permanent
License State: Active, In Use
License Count: Non-Counted
Personalities : [raid1] [raid10] [linear] [multipath] [raid0] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4]
md124 : inactive sdj1(S)
Solution, we "run" the array
sudo mdadm --manage /dev/md124 --run
mdadm: started array /dev/md/0_0........
If you are getting this error from systemctl "Loaded: masked (Reason: Unit hostapd.service is masked.)" we need to unmask the service.
systemctl unmask hostapd
root@routerOS:/var/log# systemctl start hostapd
root@routerOS:/var/log# systemctl status hostapd
● hostapd.service - Access point and authentication server for Wi-Fi and Ethern........
Bonding is an excellent way to get both increased redundancy and throughput. It is similar to the "Network Teaming" feature in Windows.
There are a few different modes but we will use mode 6, I think it's the best of both worlds, as it is not just a failover, but it provides round robin, so you will get redundancy and load balancing. So if you have a 1G single port, you will have a combined throughput of 4G at this point. Just bear in mind that the true thr........
The Best Docker Tutorial for Beginners
We quickly explain the basic Docker concepts and show you how to do the most common tasks from starting your first container, to making custom images, a Docker Swarm Cluster Tutorial, docker compose and Docker buildfiles.........
Datacenters, Cloud, VPS and Dedicated Servers in Hong Kong are ping neutral to the world and rest of Asia
This article is the best guide on the internet for all things Hong Kong internet and how it applies to your business, based on decades of experience and research, to help you make........
How Do You Apply Changes You've Made?
You can make all kinds of changes to the switch, but remember they are not actually active until you run the "commit" command. This means adding or deleting config options will not have any effect until you run "commit".
Under configure mode:
I have a Canon MF642c and the scanner wouldn't work. I tried to use saned but it didn't work with the BJNPlike it did for some other Canon models.
Introducing sane-airscan with packages for the most common distributions: https://software.opensuse.org/download.html?project=home%3Apzz&package=sane-airscan
Is a mdadm check on your trusty software RAID array happening at the worst time and slowing down your server or NAS?
Personalities : [raid1] [raid10]
md127 : active raid10 sdb4 sda4
897500672 blocks super 1.2 2 near-copies [2/2] [UU]
[==========>..........] check = 50.4% (452485504/897500672) finish=15500.3min speed=478K/sec
apt install software-properties-common
apt install python3-pip
apt install python3.7 curl gnupg python3.7-dev git
ln -s /usr/bin/python3.7 /usr/bin/python3
pip3 install numpy keras_preprocessing
curl https://bazel.build/bazel-release.pub.gpg | sudo apt-key add -
echo "deb [arch=amd64] http://storage.googleapis.com/bazel-apt stable jdk1.8" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/bazel........
If you are getting this error it is usually caused by having more than 5 keys in your ".ssh" directory. It is a bit of a bug and this is how it manifests itself.
You will find at this point that you are not given any chance to enter a password, or if you are using key based auth that the same thing happens. You'll also find that this is happening with ALLservers you try connecting to.
The solution is to move away key pairs from .ssh so that there ar........
It is unfortunate that LXC's dir mode is completely insecure and allows way too much information from the host to be seen. I wonder if there will eventually be a way to break into the host filesystem or other container's storage?
OpenVZ better security:
[root@ev ~]# cat /proc/mdstat
cat: /proc/mdstat: No such file or directory
/dev/simfs 843G 740G 61G........
It is fairly simple to use once you know how to use it. However, the tricky thing is that by default it doesn't seem to be active or listen on any interface on manually specified.
How To Install ifplugd
First we install ifplugd
sudo apt install ifplugd
Let's enable it on our desired device(s)
set this line as so:........
This is a gotcha but be aware sometimes iptables may be active and loaded by default.
Also make sure you don't just disable firewalld but also stop it otherwise it will still block stuff:
systemctl stop firewalld
If the above is not the issue then it is possible iptables is running and blocking stuff too, so you'll need to stop iptables.
So in addition to opening firewalld or disabling it, you would need to disable iptables........
How To Setup 2 Phones on a Single CME Router and get the GUI going.
How to use Dialpeers with CME with two routers
How to implement call restrictions using COR / Class of Restriction
Getting started, let's enable ephones and DNs we can add a phone with........
service sshd status
● ssh.service - OpenBSD Secure Shell server
Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/ssh.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
Active: failed (Result: start-limit-hit) since Wed 2019-10-02 11:07:54 EDT; 36s ago
Process: 476 ExecStartPre=/usr/sbin/sshd -t (code=exited, status=255)
Oct 02 11:07:54 box systemd: Failed to start OpenBSD Secure Shell server.
Oct 02 11:07:54 box sys........
If you've just installed VBox and it is not starting or working, the most common problem is usually that you don't have your kernel source installed, which means there is no kernel driver for vbox so it can't work.
You may get an error that says "Kernel driver not installed" in your Virtualbox.
So the first thing you should do is install your kernel source by running this:
sudo apt-get install linux-headers-`uname -r`........
Install Errors on Version 12:
This error happened on QEMU emulator version 2.11.1 pve-qemu-kvm_2.11.1-5
on Proxmox/Debian but installing on QEMU.12 on Centos 6 did not produce the error.
*Update it is not related to the OS or QEMU version. This happened in Centos 6 too after a second install.
What really causes this even though you successfully install........
If you get error messages like this it is usually because /var/run/sshd does not exist.
root@userbox:/# service sshd status
● ssh.service - OpenBSD Secure Shell server
Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/ssh.service; enabled; vendor preset: enab
Active: failed (Result: start-limit-hit) since Wed 2019-04-10 02:24:44 EDT; 1
Process: 511 ExecStartPre=/usr/sbin/sshd -t (code=exited, status=255)........
The strange thing is that usually the first install or two will work on any new machine but then it suddenly won't. I had this experience on QEMU 2.13 on a different machine. There is something finicky or buggy about the CUCM installer even when choosing the same virtual hardware specs.
QEMU PC emulator version 0.12.1 (qemu-kvm-0.12.1.2-2.506.el6_10.1), Copyright (c) 2003-2008 Fabrice Bellard
This is the closest way to disabling it without using the "libata.force=noncq" kernel boot option is to set the queue to a depth of 1 which doesn't actually disable it.
Change the sdc below to match the device you want to disable NCQ for.
[root@officebox ~]# echo "1" > /sys/block/sdc/device/queue_depth
Errors that indicate you are having a performance issue are these in messages or dmesg relating to N........
This is usually because the Group Policy forbids that user or group from logging in.
run "gpmc" (not "gpedit.msc" as that is for local computer settings when you are not using Active Directory) or go to Administrative Tools and Group Policy Management.
Edit the default domain policy like below........
For some reason, perhaps you don't want to run a daemon or let Letsencrypt have access to your production server.
There is a way to use it like a normal CSR/CA setup in manual mode.
./letsencrypt-auto certonly --manual -d realtechtalk.com - www.realtechtalk.com
Eventually you will get prompted to create a certain path and file with certain data:
Create a file containing just this data:
Enter configuration console:
This is important because if your console doesn't look like below none of the commands will work!
Save and Apply Settings
Show Switch Configuration:
Show Port List/Sta........
Do you hate how Centos 7 defaults to allocating most of your valuable space to /home even though it is a production server?
Here is a quick guide on how to take back that space live, while online (of course make sure you have backups just in case something goes wrong!):
First we will reduce our home dir by 100G:
lvreduce -L -100G /dev/mapper/centos-home
WARNING: Reducing active and open logical volume to ........
Personalities : [linear] [multipath] [raid0] [raid1] [raid10] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4]
md127 : active (auto-read-only) raid10 sdc1 sdb1
1953382400 blocks super 1.2 512K chunks 2 far-copies [2/1] [U_]
bitmap: 15/15 pages [60KB], 65536KB chunk
Solution force repai........
iw dev wlan0 station dump
This is very useful because it is helpful if you are running something like hostapd and need to see the signal strength and negotiated connection speed.
Station ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff (on wlan0)
inactive time: 16309 ms
rx bytes: 25451
rx packets: 325
tx bytes: 44381
tx packets: 159
tx retries: 0
tx failed: 0
signal: -72 [-72] dBm
signal avg: -72 [-72] dBm........
Cisco's CUCM (Cisco Unified Communication Manager) is a system that combines voice, video, data and mobile products into a single unified management suite. At its core, the CUCMis like a "Super PBX" that controls the flow of all communications through an organization even single or multiple site deployments.
Cisco's CUCMmakes communication more effective and simple through centralized management and unification of communications resources.........
What Is Active Directory?
Active Directory is essentially an enhanced, centralized database with a set of objects that make user management, authorization, and data management simpler. Active Directory is synonymous with "Domain Controllers" where a single "domain" often consists of multiple sites and members of the domain. Multiple domains can also be joined to belong to a tree ( a collection of domains). And the highest layer is the forest whi........
systemd is like the service manager for your Centos and other modern Linux distributions (including Debian/Mint/Ubuntu) allows you to enable services, stop them, restart them, check their status and even reboot your system.
The key commands or arguments you will use with systemctl are the following:
list-units [PATTERN...] List loaded units
You can search for this bug and it seems like it may be related to ecryptfs and is many years old.
The symptoms are that you return to the computer and the screensaver was active or the screen was asleep/black and it doesn't seem to come back. But you check by SSH the computer is running fine and are frustrated you'll lose your running programs and have to reboot.
There is a simple solution:
Ctrl + Alt + F1
Ctrl +Alt + F8
This happens because Dovecot limits the maximum IMAPconnections per IPto just 10. This may be fine for a single client side IPbut if an entire office or multiple users are behind one IPor a single heavy user is active then you will get bizarre errors in your e-mail clients such as "Password Incorrect" or similar in Thunderbird. It won't be obvious on the client side as to what the problem is and they will probably just think the server is misconfi........
myguy@devbox:~$ sudo mdadm -As
myguy@devbox:~$ cat /proc/mdstat |grep sdf
md125 : inactive sdf3(S)
sudo mdadm --manage /dev/md125 --run
mdadm: started /dev/md125
This through me for a loop when I would do a cp -rf or mv -f nothing would get overwritten even if piping y or yes to the command.
Type alias and you'll see why:
alias cp='cp -i'
alias l.='ls -d .* --color=auto'
alias ll='ls -l --color=auto'
alias ls='ls --color=auto'
alias mv='mv -i'
alias rm='rm -i'
The -i is a safeguard against messing things up but however does mess things up worse when you know what........
The easiest way to recover or mount an off-line ecryptfs directory is the built-in command from ecryptfs
sudo ecryptfs-recover-private It will find your wrapped passphrase and ask for your password and mount it in tmp. Much easier especially when your current active OS is using ecryptfs too.
This a fantastic tool when going through old backups.........
When running cudaminer once it tries to initialize the card the entire screen freezes. The computer itself is still running but the Xorg is done for, you cannot even switch to another console window and must reboot (even an mdm or Xorg restart does not help).
At first cudaminer will give you these errors:
...retry after 15 seconds
GPU #0: Geforce 210 with compute ca........
In short the two drives in the array were /dev/sdd and /dev/sde. The kernel sees they were unplugged and have gone down as you can see below.
mdadm caught the first one being unplugged /dev/sde and disabled the missing drive. However when the final drive that was part of the array is unplugged it didn't notice at all. Instead it complains about an IO error later for drives that the kernel knows do not exist anymore.
[45817.162728] ata4: exception........
In short the solution is just to use vgremove for the actual /dev/mapper device:
box mnt # mdadm --manage /dev/md8 --stop
mdadm: Cannot get exclusive access to /dev/md8:Perhaps a running process, mounted filesystem or active volume group?
box mnt # lv
lvchange lvconvert lvcreate l........
This was a surprising bug but I unplugged all drives for an array md127. At first it was just 1 drive and mdadm seemed to notice this. I unplugged the second drive taking the array offline but mdadm did not realize it was offline and still showed a non-existent disk as being part of it. This created problems trying to unmount it or even to stop this array with mdadm freezing.
As for how to fix it I can only think of making sure you are not in a mounted path of........
Cannot even "Browse Network" when clicking on "Windows Network"
Unable to mount location
Failed to retrieve share list from server: No such file or directory
[2017/02/14 00:16:44.271314, 0] ../source3/nmbd/nmbd.c:58(terminate)
Got SIGTERM: going down...
[2017/02/13 17:35:41.797944, 0] ../lib/util/become_daemon.c:124(daemon_ready)
This happens when you assemble array it doesn't mean it will be active for many reasons:
md20 : inactive sdf1(S)
732442488 blocks super 1.2
sudo mdadm --manage /dev/md20 --run........
[17925926.174277] block drbd0: Handshake successful: Agreed network protocol version 96
[17925926.174325] block drbd0: conn( WFConnection -> WFReportParams )
[17925926.174342] block drbd0: Starting asender thread (from drbd0_receiver )
[17925926.174432] block drbd0: data-integrity-alg:
[17925926.174581] block drbd0: drbd_sync_handshake:
[17925926.174586] block drbd0: self 2AAE66AF9252D6DB:2815BF........
This is a common mistake but many people do not realize this function comes from mysql itself, so therefore you need an active mysql connection open.
Usually the string will be empty and null when you call it from outside of the database connection portion of your code.
eg. an example of the wrong way and creating a null/empty string
$var = mysql_real_escape_string($myself)
// returns n........
This can happen because port 80 is not open, or your license has expired and/or your IP is out of date and also if the license server itself from cPanel is having issues.
In most cases as long as you have a valid license the following command will solve it:
Updating cPanel license...Done. Update succeeded.
Building global cache for cpanel...Done
grub> root (hd0,0)
Filesystem type is ext2fs, partition type 0xfd
grub> setup (hd0)
But if you do:
it does work, I think hd0/sda had a GPT partition that was not removed properly (what I did was just dd bs=512 count=1 the partition table from another drive since the partition table should be identical).
Checking if "/boot/grub/........
Here is the scenario you or a client have a remote machine that was installed as a standard/default minimal Centos 6.x machine on a single disk with LVM for whatever reason. Often many people do not know how to install it to a RAID array so it is common to have this problem and why reinstall if you don't need to? In some cases on a remote system you can't easily reinstall without physical or KVM access.
So in this case you add a second physical or disk or already ha........
[ 2868.041375] ata1: EH in SWNCQ mode,QC:qc_active 0x40 sactive 0x40
[ 2868.041554] ata1: SWNCQ:qc_active 0x40 defer_bits 0x0 last_issue_tag 0x6
[ 2868.041556] dhfis 0x40 dmafis 0x40 sdbfis 0x20
[ 2868.041874] ata1: ATA_REG 0x41 ERR_REG 0x84
[ 2868.042013] ata1: tag : dhfis dmafis sdbfis sactive
[ 2868.042163] ata1: tag 0x6: 1 1 0 1
[ 2868.042301] ata1.00: exception Emask 0x1 SAct 0x40 SErr 0x400000 action 0x6 frozen
ProCurve J4903A Switch 2824
Software revision I.10.77
Copyright (C) 1991-2009 Hewlett-Packard Co. All Rights Reserved.
RESTRICTED RIGHTS LEGEND
Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is subject to restrictions........
First of all if you're getting this error it is a result of extreme database activity. If you aren't expecting it or it doesn't make sense to you 99% of the time this is a database driven script being exploited (some common examples I see often are things like phpBB being hit by dozens, hundreds or thousands of bots making constant DB write requests).
The easiest way to identify this is to restart MySQL and then run the third party tool "mtop" and you'll see all........
CPanel says you can access 98% of the functions through CLI which experienced Unix/Linux admins prefer for simplicity and for scripting. I've never found CPanel easy to use from the admin panel, it seems everything is hard to find and a simple task becomes a series of hunts.
So for people like me here's the list: http://cpanel.net/system-administrators/command-line-scrip........
This problem seemed to happen recently but was likely causing issues before where the phone(s) do not ring.
Now there are a few reasons why this can happen especially if your adapter has DND mode enabled (disable it).
However that wasn't my issue and Ionly figured it out the other day when by fluke if you're on the phone (making a call) then calls will come in.
That's when Ifigured out the solution:
This likely app........
[3805108.257042] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] 1953525168 512-byte hardware sectors: (1.00 TB/931 GiB)
[3805108.257052] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Write Protect is off
[3805108.257054] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Mode Sense: 00 3a 00 00
[3805108.257066] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Write cache: enabled, read cache: enabled, doesn't support DPO or FUA
[3805108.257083] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] 1953525168 512-byte hardware sectors: (1.00 TB/931 GiB)
[3805108.257090] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Write Protect is off........
Services -> Services
Fill out an empty line:
Those first 3 fields are mandatory, if you miss it then the changes will be lost even if you try to save.
Make sure you've d........
This is a great way to upgrade your RAID array or move it/copy it to a new set of hard drives.
Eg. you have a current RAID 1 array on older/slower drives.
Just add at least 1 of the new drives to the array, update grub/install it and then boot into it. Then you have a transparent data migration that is fully synchronized.
mdadm --grow /dev/md126 --raid-devices 3
md127 : active raid1 sdc1........
The results are not bad, the Hitachi performs the same as it does in a SATA2 motherboard. However, the 2TB is much different, on a similar 2TB Toshiba I get about 198MB/s on a different motherboard vs the 2TB Hitachi which should produce similar results.
This Dell Perc 6/i is on a PCI x8 riser card and is connected to a 12-port backplane.
Enclosure Device ID: 32
Slot Number: 0
Enclosure position: N/A
At first it was configured as a RAID 0, then I deleted the Virtual Disk Group.
I thought both drives would be shown and detected in Linux as sda and sdb but it actually shows nothing.
To make them work you have to hit Ctrl+R before the system boots (when prompted) and create a Virtual Disk Group. In my case I created each one as RAID 0 (with a single drive only) as I just wanted JBOD but there is no such option or default in these Dell Pe........
Have you ever unplugged the wrong drive and then had to rebuild the entire array? It may not be a big deal in some ways but it does make your system vulnerable until the rebuild is done.
Many distros often enable the "bitmap" feature and this basically keeps track of what parts need to be resynced in the case of a temporary removal of a drive from the array, this way it only needs to sync what has changed.
To enable bitmap to speed up rebuilds and sync........
mdadm --create /dev/md2 --level=1 --raid-devices=2 /dev/sda3 /dev/sdb3
Personalities : [raid1]
md2 : active raid1 sdb3 sda3
1363020736 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU]
[=>...................] resync = 8.3% (113597440/1363020736) finish=276.2min speed=75366K/sec
OpenSSH_4.3p2, OpenSSL 0.9.8e-fips-rhel5 01 Jul 2008
debug1: Reading configuration data /etc/ssh/ssh_config
debug1: Applying options for *
debug1: Connecting to 192.168.1.253 [192.168.1.253] port 22.
debug1: Connection established.
debug1: permanently_set_uid: 0/0
debug1: identity file /root/.ssh/identity type -1
debug1: identity file /root/.ssh/id_rsa type 1
debug1: identity file /root/.ssh/id_d........
3 logical volume(s) in volume group "vg_12" now active
inactive '/dev/vg_12/lv_root' [144.04 GB] inherit
inactive '/dev/vg_12/lv_home' [1.00 GB] inherit
inactive '/dev/vg_12/lv_swap' [7.85 GB] inherit........
mdadm --manage /dev/md3 --add /dev/sda1
Personalities : [raid1] [linear] [multipath] [raid0] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4] [raid10]
md0 : inactive sdd2 sdd1(S)
md3 : active raid1 sda1 sdb1 sdc1(F)
943730240 blocks [2/1] [_U]
Here's a proven example of what a bad hard drive can do, it was technically functioning OKin a RAID array but the system became extremely low and the load become high and IOWAIT was even higher and I always thought it was a bad application. The truth is that this failing 1TBHitachi has slowly gotten worse and caused huge slowdowns, (eg. 100% load on Thunderbird waiting for e-mails to load etc..). After swapping it out, tabs change instantly, emails are not lagged, and........
Inever started these processes but they are from a custom based bootable Linux I've made and I've never seen this behavior on other machines or even with the same machine using different kernels. These processes seemed to spawn on their own and I have no idea why and even worse why the CPU usage is so high?
Here's the output from top:
907 extaudit 30 10 0 0 0 R 90.7 0.0........
Neither the blkid or the UUID internal to mdadm work to automount for some reason in Debian
partprobe doesn't work but was a good suggestion from: http://pato.dudits.net/2008/11/03/special-device-uuidxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx-does-not-exist-especially-with-lvm
mount: special device /dev/disk/by-uuid/431b9b96-29e8f298-e89bd504-7065bddd does not exist
mdadm -D /dev/md_d12
mdadm: metadata format 00.90 unknown, ignored.
fdisk -lu VPS.img
last_lba(): I don't know how to handle files with mode 81ed
You must set cylinders.
You can do this from the extra functions menu.
Disk VPS.img: 0 MB, 0 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 0 cylinders, total 0 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Device Boot Start End ........
I had a system running a 128MB live CD image with 2.8 gigs of available RAM and the OOM kernel killer went crazy when using dd for more than 8 minutes and kept killing everything. I've read that this is due to a low-memory issue and paging in the kernel and 32-bit systems with lots of RAM.
I even enabled swapspace on my LiveCD and the issue happened 25 minutes into dd rather than 8 minutes, so what gives?
Also no swap space was ever used!
One thing to note about DNS servers and providers is that they aren't always trustworthy, not even if they're Google or your favorite ISP. Any DNS server can compromise your privacy, and they are likely tracking your browsing habits and keeping logs of it. Sometimes it's for Marketing/Research purposes such as Google's GMail service which they admit is scraped/datamined. I would expect nothing less from their DNS service.
The other danger with such widely used and pu........
high IO wait
424 root 39 19 1900 848 552 D 0.0 0.0 0:00.91 updatedb
root 424 0.0 0.0 1900 848 ? DN Mar11 0:00 /usr/bin/updatedb -f sysfs?rootfs?bdev?proc?cpuset?binfmt_misc?debugfs?sockfs?usbfs?pipefs?anon_inodefs?futexfs?tmpfs?inotifyfs?eventp........
Fusion MPT base driver 3.04.07
Copyright (c) 1999-2008 LSI Corporation
Fusion MPT SPI Host driver 3.04.07
mptbase: ioc0: Initiating bringup
mptbase: ioc0: WARNING - Unexpected doorbell active!
mptbase: ioc0: ERROR - Doorbell ACK timeout (count=4999), IntStatus=80000001!
mptbase: ioc0: ERROR - Diagnostic reset FAILED! (102h)
mptbase: ioc0: WARNING - NOT READY!
mptbase: ioc0: ERROR - didn't initialize proper........
Centos 5 Postfix and SPAMASSASSIN Tutorial
yum install spamassassin
chkconfig spamassassin on
#rewrite_header Subject [SPAM]
#5 is the least restrictive (means only the most obvious SPAM is caught. 0 is obviously the most restrictive/sensitive and would have lots of false positives
Disable OpenWhois RBL (it is dead/defunct/no longer active):
You might see this in your headers
2.4 DNS_FROM_OPENWHOIS RBL: Envelope sender listed in bl.open-whois.org
comment out this inside /usr/share/spamassassin/72_active.cf
header DNS_FROM_OPENWHOIS eva........
*remember to apply changes you need to run "newaliases" after editing /etc/aliases
one thing I don't get is that it doesn't allow you to specify the whole e-mail address on the left-hand side
postalias: warning: /etc/aliases, line 109: name must be local (if you try the above)
It works more like this:
Virtualmin Postfix Error:
The status of your system is being checked to ensure that all enabled features are available, that the mail server is properly configured, and that quotas are active ..
A problem was found with your Postfix virtual maps : No map sources were found in the Postfix configuration
.. your system is not ready for use by Virtualmin.
This doesn't seem to be widely known (maybe it's in some documentation that none of us read though)but there's an easy way to check the integrity of any mdadm array:
sudo echo check > /sys/block/md0/md/sync_action
-bash: /sys/block/md0/md/sync_action: Permission denied
sudo will never work, this only works as root since echo is not actually a binary/command. It is built-into bash.
This really made me nervous but notice the mdstat says "check". This is because in Ubuntu there is a scheduled mdadm cronscript that runs everyday on Sunday at 00:57 that checks your entire array. This is a good way because it prevents gradual but unnoticed data corruption which Inever thought of.
As long as the check completes properly you have peace of mind knowing that your data integretiy is assured and that your hard drives are functioning properly (I'........
I separated the 2 drives in the RAID 1 array.
1 is the old one /dev/sda and is out of date, while the separated other one /dev/sdc was in another drive and mounted and used with more data (updated).
I wonder how mdadm will handle this:
usb-storage: device scan complete
md: md127 stopped.
md: md127: raid array is not clean -- starting background reconstruction
raid1: raid set md127 active with 1 out of 2 m........
Create New RAID 1 Array:
First setup your partitions (make sure they are exactly the same size)
In my example I have sda3 and sdb3 which are 500GB in size.
mdadm --create /dev/md2 --level=1 --raid-devices=2 /dev/sda3 /dev/sdb3
mdadm: array /dev/md2 started.
Check Status Of The Array
*Note I already have other arrays md0 and md1.
You can see below that md2 is syn........
For a standalone system the solution is simple, just use the same version of Windows a copy a good version of:
C:windowsSecurityDatabasesecedit.sdb from another computer.
Then you should be able to login again without getting the nasty message "Local policy does not permit you to log on interactively."
Of course you will probably need a way of accessing the filesystem off-line in order to get to it such as a Linux boot disc.
md: Autodetecting RAID arrays.
md: autorun ...
md: considering sdb1 ...
md: adding sdb1 ...
md: adding sda1 ...
md: created md0
md: kicking non-fresh sda1 from array!
raid1: raid set md0 active with 1 out of 2 mirrors
The md0 raid kicked sda1 ou........
[27969.398749] sd 5:0:0:0: [sdb] 3907029168 512-byte hardware sectors (2000399 MB)
[27969.398749] sd 5:0:0:0: [sdb] Write Protect is off
[27969.398749] sd 5:0:0:0: [sdb] Mode Sense: 00 3a 00 00
[27969.398749] sd 5:0:0:0: [sdb] Write cache: enabled, read cache: enabled, doesn't support DPO or FUA
[27972.117543] ata6.00: exception Emask 0x0 SAct 0x1 SErr 0x0 action 0x0
[27972.117543] ata6.00: irq_stat 0x48000000
[27972.117543] ata6.00: cmd 60/08:00:ff:7........
If you have the "(auto-read-only)" beside an arrayI have no idea why that happens but it is easy to fix.
Just run "mdadm --readwrite /dev/md1" (rename md0 to the device with the problem and it will begin to resync.
md1 : active (auto-read-only) raid1 sdb2 sda2
19534976 blocks [2/2] [UU]
This is a great way to use your ftp server space, for example on your web hosting account (althoughI believe many hosts don't allow storage like this), but if you have a VPS/Dedicated Server etc.., this would be perfect. Imagine how easy it is to work with an ftp account that you can just mount as a normal partition or directory in Linux, it would be great for backups etc..
curlftpfs - mount a ftp host as a local directory
*Note OS X is strange to install, I thought my HDD was not being detected by you just have to go to Diskutil and create a partition for the root filesystem and then close/move the Window and proceed with the install.
After install Mac OS X 10.4.6 Tiger I get a black screen that says:
Most people say the partition has to be marked as "active", actually that just means marked as "bootable". Instead of t........
Why would you want to downgrade the superblock? Old mdadm verisons like mdadm 2.5.6 only use the 0.90 superblock/metadata and new versions use 1,1.0,1.1 and 1.2 superblocks by default.
There are some annoying caveats with this, first of all the new superblocks (later than 0.90) CANNOT be read by GRUB, so you won't even be able to install GRUB. Even worse, old versions of mdadm CANNOT automatically detect arrays even if they were created with a new version of mdadm with th........
Which one does the OS care about? blkid says the UUID is "787f1fa4-b010-4d77-a010-795b42884f56" while md insists its UUID is "4d96dd3b:deb5d555:7adb93cb:ce9182d9"
When in doubt, do we assume the OS takes the one from blkid?
/dev/md0: UUID="787f1fa4-b010-4d77-a010-795b42884f56" TYPE="ext3"
[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md0
Version : 0.90
I successfully created a single RAID 1 partition which includes /boot inside it and my root directory through the Debian installer. It said GRUB installed successfully but when I try booting the OS it seems GRUB can't read anything.
When trying to boot from GRUB
GRUB Loading stage 1.5.
GRUB loading, please wait...
I get "Error 2" when trying to boot Debian. I also notice from a LiveCD that........
I installed 5.5 with a 300GB RAID 1 partition (boot is also on this partition). It booted up fine the first few times until after I used a Live CD and accessed the array, and it became named /dev/md127 for some reason.
Now whenI boot into CentOS I get a kernel panic and different errors, once I got "invalid superblock", even though the array is fine (it didn't happen again, probably because I was sure to dismount and stop the mdadm array properly).
mdadm --assemble --scan
mdadm: /dev/md/diaghost05102010:2 has been started with 2 drives.
mdadm: /dev/md/diaghost05102010:1 has been started with 2 drives.
mdadm: /dev/md/diaghost05102010:0 has been started with 2 drives.
-bash-3.1# cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [linear] [raid0] [raid1] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4] [multipath]
md125 : active raid1 sda1 sdb1
14658185 blocks super 1.2........
Out of memory: kill process 7559 (rsync) score 635 or a child
Killed process 7559 (rsync)
I was surprised to see this in my dmesg whenmy rsync backup suddenly stalled/stopped.
This system has 3 gigs of RAM and lots of free memory so I don't understand what is happening.
rsync invoked oom-killer: gfp_mask=0x200d2, order=0, oomkilladj=0
Pid: 7600, comm: rsync Not tainted 22.214.171.124 #83
This drive is clearly on the way out, the Kernel knows it but I'm surprised that SMART is not concerned. I didn't blame Seagate for their past issues until now. This hard drive has hardly been used and has not even been powered on for a year according to SMART.
Home page is http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net/
=== START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===
Model Family: Seagate Barracuda 7200.11
Before we start I take no responsibility for this, you should have a backup and if you make a mistake during this process you could wipe out all of your data. So backup somewhere else before starting this as a precaution, or make sure it's data you could afford to lose.
The RAID 1 Setup (Hardware Wise)
I've already setup my 2 x 1TB (Seagate) drives with identical partitions, make sure your new hard drive (the empty one) is setup like your curr........
I decided on using yum to help me decide even though I normaly use proftpd I decided to see what else I could find.
yum search ftp
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
* rpmforge: ftp-stud.fht-esslingen.de
* base: mirrors.netdna.com
* updates: updates.interworx.info
* addons: yum.singlehop.com
* extras: mirrors.netdna.com
Here are the results, it is Sempron 3000+ AMD Mobile, 500Gig HDD, 512MB RAM with shared ATI Radeon graphics.
# # # # # # # ##### ###### # # #### # #
# # ## # # # #&nb........
heartbeat is stopped for some reason
Anyway hnode2 was active and the services are running fine but I see heartbeat has been stopped somehow.
Here is the last log I see of heartbeat:
Sep 9 17:15:32 hnode2 heartbeat: : info: MSG stats: 9/1762471 ms age 0 [pid16738/MST_CONTROL]
Sep 9 17:15:32 hnode2 heartbeat: : info: cl_malloc stats: 716/51784021 152624/74519 [pid16738/MST_CONTROL]
Sep 9 17:15:32........
Setup Static IP Address ONBOOTAssuming you are using eth0
Note this will work for any version of CentOS and basically any version of Redhat Linux or Redhat based distribution.
You would need to create a new file
the ":0" at the end specifies alias 0 we could actually change this to ":99" or "........
Quick Tutorial On Starting A Web Site[b:3cef3c01b6]Step 1.[/b:3cef3c01b6] Purchase a Domain Name (eg. yoursite.com)
[b:3cef3c01b6]Step 2.[/b:3cef3c01b6] Design your site using a program such as Microsoft Frontpage or Macromedia Dreamweaver. If you are unable or unfamiliar with doing this you may want to hire a company to create your site (many of them will handle each aspect of setting up your site).
[b:3cef3c01b6]Step 3.[/b:3cef3c01b6] Host your site........
Other Security Web SitesSeveral websites actively track security issues. This list provides you with the major providers
of security information on the Web. Many of these organizations also provide newsletters and
mailings to announce changes or security threats:
Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS)
CERIAS is an industry-sponsored center at Purdue University that is focused on technology and
This really is a difficult and confusing process for non-Mandarin speakers, but here's what I've done and learned so far:
You can purchase an "M-Zone" China Mobile pre-paid SIMCard from almost anywhere but I tried to purchase mine from Suning (a large electronics dealer) hoping they would be able to help me or answer my questions but my plan didn't work out at all. At Suning once I found someone who spoke some English they gave me the 55 RMB M-Zone China Mobile P........
Yes, Iadmit I finally got bitten by the hype as much as I can usually see through it all. Keep in mind this review is of the "stock" phone, no jailbreaking yet which is what really unleashes the customizability and whyI bought iPhone.
I had better things to say about this phone before buying it, and it is a great phone, perhaps the best on the market by far, if not because of the Mac OS port onto the iPhone and all the apps, etc, etc.
With that said........
There's a lot of information and guides on OCFS2 for RHELand Centos Linux but the package setup and configuration is slightly different and this has thrown some people off.
You should install the following packages to get started:
apt-get install ocfs2-tools ocfs2console
In RHEL/Centos the main configuration file is located in /etc/sysconfig/o2cb
However in Debian based Linux it is located........