Step 1.) Upgrade to Debian 11 first
The process to go to Debian 12 is not as smooth as 11, when trying to upgrade from Debian 10. In fact, it doesn't work directly, so you'll first need to follow this guide to update to Debian 11, reboot and come back here if successful.
Step 2.) Update sources.list
Update your /etc/apt/sources.list like this:
Welcome to our in-depth guide on configuring NVIDIA GPUs with Docker on Ubuntu. This post is tailored for developers, data scientists, and IT professionals who are looking to leverage the power of NVIDIA's GPU acceleration within Docker containers.
Whether you're working on machine lea........
In a lot of distros like Debian, ecryptfs will mount itself in /home/yourusername/Private
This is controlled by Private.mnt which may contain the mount path like this:
Change the default mount location of ecryptfs by modifying this file:
After you unmount and relogin, you should find ecryptfs is now mo........
A lot of developers want to go to 3.11 because of the speed improvements, but most distros never have the latest Python version.
Using the deadsnakes third party repo is the easiest way aside from compiling it yourself (which is safer and recommended):
Step 1 - Add the repo
If you get an error about requests then install it:........
This sort of thing normally happens your python3 or pip3 has been updated, because you have to in order to use pip, but the newer pip now breaks compatibility with your old python (3.5 in this case).
There are a few solutions, the easiest is perhaps to upgrade to a newer OS with a newer distro provided Python 3 or to manually install a newer version of Python/OR use a PPA like deadsnakes that provides newer versions.
This likely works for even older versions but I have only tested on 8,9,10 (11,12). It's quite impressive at how easy it is to upgrade from a very old version to the new version. I would say that Debian version upgrades are some of the quickest and smoothest of any distro.
1.) Backup your /etc/apt/sources.list
cp /etc/apt/sources.list ~
#Get your keys first, you need the latest keys for Debian 11 or it won't work:........
ClamAV update process started at Sun Mar 20 00:30:50 2022
WARNING: Your ClamAV installation is OUTDATED!
WARNING: Local version: 0.100.3 Recommended version: 0.103.5
DON'T PANIC! Read https://www.clamav.net/documents/upgrading-clamav
main.cld is up to date (version: 62, sigs: 6647427, f-level: 90, builder: sigmgr)
WARNING: getpatch: Can't download daily-26337.cdiff from db.local.clamav.net
Why choose OpenVPN instead of a firewall appliance?
OpenVPN can be a reliable and easy replacement for traditional hardware or just be an additional tool that your company uses so that the firewall can focus on its job rather than acting as a VPNappliance at the same time.
When comparing OpenVPN with traditional firewal........
These types of errors are normally caused by misconfiguration of your /etc/apt/sources.list.
In this example on Debian 10, if you didn't complete the install correctly, you will have no repos enabled and only rely on CDROM.
"Package wget is not available, but is referred to by another package. This may mean that the package is missing, has been obsoleted, or is only available from another source.
E: Package 'wget' ha........
How To Install Wazuh Server / Quickest Installation
Wazuh (forked from the well known OSSEC project) is a full SIEM (Security Information Event Management) that works extremely well with the platforms it natively supports as an "Agent", which allows you to do scans of everything such as all processes running, CVE vulnerability check, incident reporting etc...
A lot of issues with Wazuh seem to be caused by i........
Volume control will often stop working, if your sound server (normally pulseaudio) dies or restarts whether by itself or by you. The reason pulseaudio may need to be restarted is due to some sort of crash or other issue that prevents sound from working (normally restarting or doing a killall pulseaudio fixes things).
However, you will normally find at least in OS's like Ubuntu/Mint 16/18+ that you cannot control the volume whether adjusting the level, changing input/outputs and........
Just a quick note and warning is that if you are testing to see if EFIPXE booting works on a VM, MAKE SURE it actually works. For example Iinitially tested using my Distro's QEMU 2.5+dfsg-5ubuntu10.46 and ovmf BIOS firmware (OVMF supports EFI). However, I found on old versions of QEMU (like 2.5), EFIbooting with GRUB NEVER works so it may appear that you have made a mistake when everything is fine when you boot a physi........
One simple flag to configure will create a makefile that statically links all the shared objects and embeds them instead the binary execute. This means as long as you have the same architecture that things should run.
Eg. if you have an old version of Debian with a different version of glibc, then this will solve that problem.
To test that it is really statically linked run ldd:
Most newer distros inexplicably cause your NIC to have what Icall "random" non-standard name conventions because of systemd.
This is a big problem for many people and especially those running servers. Imagine that you have a static IPconfigured for ens33 but then the hard disk is moved to a newer system, the NIC could be anything from ens33 to enp0s1, meaning that manual intervention is required to go and update the NIC config file (eg. /etc/network/interfa........
I used to believe that for Desktops especially that the "ondemand" CPUfrequency changing that kernels included with Ubuntu and Debian based distros have would be sufficient for snappy performance.
However, you can feel the lack of performance on the fastest computer if you have ondemand. A lot of times even under high load 100% of your CPUfrequency in MHz will not be used.
For example a 2.8Ghz CPUmay only run at 1.8MHz or even .9GHz. Now........
chroot which stands for change root allows you to virtually operate in another operating system even though you haven't booted it. It is commonly used to deploy new distros, applications and to fix a broken Linux/Unix install or prep a new system image without having to physically boot the drive or disk.
So in this example let's say we have a drive that has a Linux OS installed on /dev/sdb1 and we have mounted this partition on /mnt/sdb1
The key point is to edit the &quo........
The net-tools command brings back all of the oldschool tools that we're used to:
To remove all spaces from all files in the current directory
linux rename remove spaces
rename "s/ //g" *
how to replace part of the text with another (it is almost like using sed):
rename s/"Screenshot at 2019-04-22 "/"AC97-Windows-InstallSolution"/g *
The first part "Screenshot at 2019-04-22" is what we're looking for
This is mainly the case on Centos but applies to other distros and situations. If you are running programs in the background with the &, at least in Centos it is usually not honored and if you quit or are disconnected the backgrounded programs will be sent sighup and be shut down.
The simplest way around this instead of using & is to start any programs or commands with "nohup"
[Thu Jan 26 14:13:31 2017] [notice] caught SIGTERM, shutting down
[Thu Jan 26 14:14:00 2017] [notice] suEXEC mechanism enabled (wrapper: /usr/sbin/suexec)
[Thu Jan 26 14:14:00 2017] [error] Server certificate is expired: 'Server-Cert'
[Thu Jan 26 14:14:00 2017] [notice] SSL FIPS mode disabled
[Thu Jan 26 14:14:07 2017] [notice] suEXEC mechanism enabled (wrapper: /usr/sbin/suexec)
[Thu Jan 26 14:14:07 2017] [error] Server certificate is expired: 'Server-Ce........
Now many people report this card simply not working in various Linux distros and kernels. My issue is different, it always works at 100mbit (eg. plugged into a 100mbit switch) but no matter what 1000M/gigabit switch I would try, it would never work.
The link would be up (the lights were on) and the OS detected the link as being up as well but it wouldn't work at all and could not pass data in or out (not even a ack/ping).
There is one simple solution and command........
This was a horrible shock after upgrading fromUbuntu 9 to Linux Mint 17 and I found that the last distro to support tsclient was Debian Squeeze.
For some reason it has disappeared for a long time and the new options such as rdesktop and gnome-rdp do not have any start menu entry and just aren't done as well as tsclient.
Fortunately there is a solution:
tsclient surprisingly can be downloaded as a direct .deb package and it fails with some variou........
Say you have a bunch of files like this:
What if you want to mass rename them?
the rename tool can work just like sed
For Debian based distros:
Note "file" is what we search for and "newname" is what we replace it with, so substitute according to your requirements.
rename s/file/newname/ name-file-*.jpg
Have you ever unplugged the wrong drive and then had to rebuild the entire array? It may not be a big deal in some ways but it does make your system vulnerable until the rebuild is done.
Many distros often enable the "bitmap" feature and this basically keeps track of what parts need to be resynced in the case of a temporary removal of a drive from the array, this way it only needs to sync what has changed.
To enable bitmap to speed up rebuilds and sync........
02:00.0 Ethernet controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL8111/8168B PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet controller (rev 03)
For whatever reason it seems the r8169 driver that ships and has shipped with most Linux distros for years is still flawed and does not work properly on these cards, causing 100mbit connectivity when it should be 1gbit and even worse, causing random network dropouts. The r8169 driver in Linux kernels is simply not meant to be used on th........
A lot of people become nervous (and understandably so) when checking their auth or security logs, in Centos /var/log/secure and see dozens, hundreds of even thousands of attempted logins to various services, especially SSH.
Of course you could manually block these people/IPs but no one has time to read the logs like that, what if some program or script could do it for you?
This is what denyhosts does for you, it checks the logs and based on a certain number of failed SSH attem........
This is very annoying, the only known fix is to install vim
apt-get install vim
After that everything works as normal.........
Warning: Unable to open /dev/fd0 read-write (Read-only file system). /dev/fd0 has been opened read-only.
That's a very annoying error, it's simply because Centos for some reason thinks it's wise to load the "floppy" kernel module, who has a floppy drive? I haven't seen or used a floppy for over 12 years!
It's more than just annoying, if you probe the drives attached to your system, eg. with grub or partprobe, it keeps trying to locate a flopp........
Use "ImageMagick" which can be installed easily on most UNIX/Linux distros.
Remember that it will go with the standard file listing to determine the order but I believe you can manually specify multiple jpg's in the arguments.
Convert image/jpg to PDF
convert *.jpg yourpdf.pdf
This is a very handy and free tool.
Convert DOC/TXT documents to PDF
If you wanted to convert a .doc file or text........
From a LiveCD or if you're doing something like converting your non-RAID install to mdadm here's how you would chroot properly (you have to mount your proc, sys and dev on the running system/LiveCD to your chroot environment if you want things to work right, especially if you need to run update-initramfs due to a driver change etc..)
*replace "path" with your mount/chroot path
mount -o bind /proc /mnt/path/proc
mount -o bind /dev/ mnt/pa........
I couldn't figure out whyI couldn't install a simple package. This is what's annoying about cutting edge Debian distros, yes we know you support each license on average for 1-2 years but why take down the supporting binary packages and basically disable the older versions?
sudo apt-get install update
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
E: Couldn't find p........
This is based on Debian Linux but should apply equally to any *nix distro.
apt-get install cryptsetup
Setup your LUKS Partition
Of course change /dev/md2 with whatever partition you intend to use LUKS on.
cryptsetup --verbose --verify-passphrase luksFormat /dev/md2
You'll be asked to verify your decryption password twice
*DO NOT FORGET THIS PASSWORD AS IT IS NOT RECOVERABLE!........
I've never understood how to enable and disable services for different run levels in Debian based distros, it's just weird, annoying and doesn't make sense. I much prefer chkconfig from RHEL.
Just install the package called 'rcconf' and be done with it. rcconf makes things easy for you.
apt-get install rcconf
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done........
Basically the two main types of distros are Debian and RHEL/Centos based. I'm just going to give a quick overview of how the configuration of IP interfaces works in Debian/Centos based distros.
*Just one thing to remember, when setting IPs statically you have to manually specify a DNS server in /etc/resolv.conf (since DHCP is what normally does it automatically)
The IP (DHCP &........
I successfully created a single RAID 1 partition which includes /boot inside it and my root directory through the Debian installer. It said GRUB installed successfully but when I try booting the OS it seems GRUB can't read anything.
When trying to boot from GRUB
GRUB Loading stage 1.5.
GRUB loading, please wait...
I get "Error 2" when trying to boot Debian. I also notice from a LiveCD that........
In Debian based distros:
apt-get install jabber
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required:
Use 'apt-get autoremove' to remove them.
The following extra packages will be installed:
The following NEW packag........
Proxmox has made this free utility to backup running OpenVZ containers. It's a great program which is actually just a PERL script but gets the job done. This program is not 100% required because all it really does is cp -a from your container's path as far as I know but it is still good to have uniformity to how you backup your containers.
For RPM distros such as Centos/RHEL/Fedora etc.. download and install this:
FreeBSD Desktop OSsI would probably choose these over Linux.
In many ways these are probably more stable and just as easy to use as any Linux distros but the benefit of stable, updated and secure packages!
PC-BSD - http://www.pcbsd.org
DesktopBSD - http://www.desktopbsd.net/index.php?id=37
Personally PC-BSD is Beta at this point and is not easy if you are installing it on a non-primary partition.
I have not used Deskt........
top - 09:34:12 up 2 days, 20:57, 2 users, load average: 1.83, 1.99, 2.03
Tasks: 59 total, 2 running, 57 sleeping, 0 stopped, 0 zombie
Cpu(s): 0.3%us, 0.0%sy, 0.0%ni, 0.0%id, 99.7%wa, 0.0%hi, 0.0%si, 0.0%st
That 99.7% wa is iowait, it means the server is waiting for a process to complete an IOoperation or in plain English, there is a delay in........
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
rpmdb: mmap: No such device
error: db4 error(19) from dbenv->open: No such device
error: cannot open Packages index using db3 - No such device (19)
error: cannot open Packages database in /var/lib/rpm
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "/usr/bin/yum", line 29, in ?
In Newer Linux Distros This Way Is Easiest and works on newer versions like Ubuntu, Mint, Fedora, Centos, Debian etc.
#if you are missing timedatectl this in newer distros like Ubuntu/Mint/Debian and are using a container like Docker then do "apt install systemd"
timedatectl set-timezone America/Vancouver
Replace the America/Vancouver with the correct timezone.
To see the list you can just type "timedatectl set........