There aren't too many simple guides that show you how to use commands to setup your USB or other drive as a normal bootable drive where you can easily boot custom kernels or whatever OS you would like.
1. Get the tools we need:
We install "syslinux" for MBR and "syslinux-efi" for EFI and "MBR" as we need a tool that embeds the actual MBR into our USB:
sudo apt install syslinux syslinux-efi mbr........
It is common that you may get access to undocumented equipment and need to reset the password. This applies to many Cisco routers whether 2600, 2900, 3900 etc...
Cisco's Guide says to hit Ctrl +Pause/Break but if it doesn't work on some devices causing people to say "cisco password reset pause break does not work", you can see Cisco's alternative key combinations here:........
Just a quick note and warning is that if you are testing to see if EFIPXE booting works on a VM, MAKE SURE it actually works. For example Iinitially tested using my Distro's QEMU 2.5+dfsg-5ubuntu10.46 and ovmf BIOS firmware (OVMF supports EFI). However, I found on old versions of QEMU (like 2.5), EFIbooting with GRUB NEVER works so it may appear that you have made a mistake when everything is fine when you boot a physi........
Traditionally kernels were numbered starting from 0 but by default the "new style" of grub boot loading considers each subkernel item to be different so if you have 3 entries for 4.40-148 rather than counting for 1.
To get the expected behavior let's show this example and how we can boot it
We do a grep on menuentry in /boot/grub/grub.cfg to see all of the bootable kernels rather than scrolling through loads of extra entries we don't care about (thou........
When you automount a drive in /etc/fstab even if it's not important like an external drive that you only use sometimes and is not required for booting, it will prevent a successfuly boot.
If you disable quiet mode for booting you will see something like below "A start job is running for dev-disk ...."
How do we fix an fstab entry from preventi........
The problem is that Linux uses UTC and Windows uses the local time from the RTC.
This results in very annoying issues when booting between the two because the clock is set based on the different standards once you boot.
The easiest solution is to change your Linux to use RTC this way:
timedatectl set-local-rtc 1 --adjust-system-clock
To change it back to UTC:
The best way to avoid this problem is to understand how your BIOS is setup to boot.
Often newer machines will default to U(EFI) which is different than the traditional MBR/Legacy mode.
The problem is that this may not be apparent, often a BIOS Boot Menu will show a Legacy Boot Option and EFIOption without defining it.
A good example of this is if your USB is called "Kingston" you may see in your Boot Menu "Kingston" and also "Ubuntu"........
This happens to a lot of Nvidia users especially users of newer cards like the RTX series. If for example you are trying to boot and install Linux and you get a black and white grub2 screen instead of a nice graphical welcome installer, you probably suffer from this bug. It is normally followed by the user booting and finding they just have a blank/black screen.
Here is the quick flow of steps to fix it:
If you get a black grub scree........
Unless you are using OpenStack, AWS etc then cloud-init is just some bloat that slows down the booting of your VMand can actually halt it from booting if it doesn't have a proper working IP (not good!).
#remove cloud init!
Debian based Ubuntu / Mint
sudo apt remove cloud-init
RHEL / CentOS based
yum remove cloud-init
The cool thing here is that we only need 1 drive to make a RAID 10 or RAID 1 array, we just tell the Linux mdadm utility that the other drive is "missing" and we can then add our original drive to the array after booting into our new RAID array.
Step#1 Install tools we need
yum -y install mdadm rsync
Step #2 Create your partitions on the drive that will be our RAID array
Here I assume it is /dev........
CPU:Intel(R) Core(TM) i3-2120 CPU @ 3.30GHz
MOBO: Manufacturer: ASUSTeK COMPUTER INC.
Product Name: P8H61-M LX3 PLUS R2.0
This is weird but the only OS I've found this machine doesn't work with is Windows 2019 Server. Ihave no idea, when 2008, 2012 work f........
Oops did you get this error trying to install an oldschool driver and think it is hopeless in a new version of Windows?
First of all it is almost never a program compatibility issue:
Uh oh, so you're working on some super l33t code or other stuff that is super important and Linux Mint's MATE or Cinnamon window manager freezes. This means maybe you can move your mouse but you can't click anything, you can't Alt + Tab to another program but everything appears to be working other than that.
The first thing you would do is Ctrl + Alt + F1 (or whatever virtual terminal you want) and get into the Linux bash prompt (the black screen where things really happen :))........
Did you just install the minimal version by accident or want to install the GUI? No need to reinstall just tell yum to do the work for you!
You could actually have both installed and choose one as your preference on demand (although many people prefer GNOME's simplicity).
Install Gnome and/or KDE.
To install the GNOME Desktop on Centos 7:
yum -y groups install "GNOME Desktop"
This is not the normal "black screen"issue and I was shocked to eventually find out why. The normal advice of reconfiguring Xorg didn't work. Even booting into "Recovery Mode" did not help.
Here is the short end of the stick that fixed it:
sudo apt-get install mdm mate-desktop-environment
Yes you got it right, mdm and the mate-desktop-environment / gnome were somehow uninstalled. This must be whe........
It looks like this has something to do with APIC but I am not sure. I have similar CPUs with a different MB and BIOS that work fine on the same type of kernel. A lot of time the issue is because of the C-step setting in the BIOS.
The same thing happened on the 2.6 kernel with Centos 6 but this is a homebrew 4.4 kernel soI am not sure why it is happening when even Centos 7 (3.2) kernel works OK.
Solution - It comes down to the BIOS set........
It has been a big pain for a long-time to install Windows from a Linux environment. I used to run a windows install server and it never worked right for some reason (the install would fail on most servers).
Before getting start be sure to setup your samba share so once you boot into WinPE you can mount the install for whatever Windows you want
path = /tftpboot/images/winstall
guest ok = yes........
I don't recall having this issue in the distant past but nowadays at least Debian seems to be very picky about this.
I used dd to copy one hard drive to another and tried booting it. Everything seemed fine with grub working but each time it would drop to the busybox shell. There is no particular error so this is misleading.
Normally the first things you would check are to make sure your fstab is correct (that the UUID is correct)and that you've updated grub.&........
Done on Centos 7.3 very important as clearly based on older guides it was a lot easier and more simpler! Hint do not use grub2-install!
One huge caveat if you are an oldschool user or sysadmin who has avoided UEFIbooting
The normal way will not work here if your Centos was using UEFI. Newer systems use it by default.
The easiest way to check is to do an fdisk -l if your sy........
I've had this issue since Ubuntu 9 and now even on Linux Mint 17 no matter what latest version of the Nvidia proprietary driver that I use. It just becomes slower and slower and only gets better after rebooting or restarting Xorg.
Someone here has it as well
It's very fru........
Centos 7 is no cakewalk, there are many fundamental features and basic utilities that are missing or even completely renamed or different!
Another shocking thing is to check your NIC it is set by default to not turn on when booting!
And by the way there is no more standard eth0 the NIC convention is now "enp0s3"
It is possible to tell mdadm to create an md device on a raw disk even though it will give you an error, it writes a superblock and this corrupts the partition table which can result in your system not booting.
To fix it just zero the super-block on the offending device that you made the mistake in.
mdadm --zero-superblock /dev/sda
It is also a way of starting fresh if you wanted to create a new array.........
You may get this after a long time of not rebooting but especially if you have rsync'd a / partition or deployed an image to another VPS or computer, you will often have this issue.
The good thing it usually just takes a reboot.
Here is more info from Centos........
service iptables start
iptables: Applying firewall rules: iptables-restore: line 40 failed
Iwas surprised to see that Linux Mint at the latest 17.2 version still has NO mdadm installer option, and worse the installer will not be able to create a proper booting environment even when you do install it.
How to setup mdadm in Linux mint LiveCD
apt-get install mdadm
# partition as you need and then create your mdadm devices
# create your SWAP md0
mdadm --create /dev/md0 --level=1 --raid-devices=2 /dev/sda1 /d........
Filesystem type unknown, partition type 0x83
grub> root (hd2,2)
Filesystem type is ext2fs, partition type 0x83
grub> setup (hd2)
Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... no
Checking if "/grub/stage1" exists... no
#weird thing about grub is that the drive you enter is considered hd0
For example when booted fu........
This happened while trying to delete several thousand users from phpBB and basically corrupted the innoDB tables.
InnoDB: Page lsn 3 881164362, low 4 bytes of lsn at page end 881164362
InnoDB: Page number (if stored to page already) 86920,
InnoDB: space id (if created with >= MySQL-4.1.1 and stored already) 0
InnoDB: Page may be an index page where index id is 700
InnoDB: (index "tid_post_time" of table "phpBBdb2005"."phpbb3_p........
ResourceManager: CRIT: Resource STOP failure. Reboot required!
This happened on a cluster Iam running with heartbeat for no particular reason that I can figure out.
The box ended up rebooting itself for some reason. It was not a big deal in the sense that the other servers in the cluster kept running but it would be nice to find the cause of this.........
This problem seemed to happen recently but was likely causing issues before where the phone(s) do not ring.
Now there are a few reasons why this can happen especially if your adapter has DND mode enabled (disable it).
However that wasn't my issue and Ionly figured it out the other day when by fluke if you're on the phone (making a call) then calls will come in.
That's when Ifigured out the solution:
This likely app........
Unusually the Virtualization was enabled when I got this server but all the NICs were diabled in the BIOS including PXE boot!
Advanced -> Advanced Chipset Control
PCI Slot 1 Option ROM: Enabled
Onboard LAN1 Control: Enabled
LAN1 Option ROM Scan: Enabled (you need it for PXE boot)
Onboard LAN2 Control: Enabled
LAN2 Option ROM Scan: Enabled
*you will need to reboot and........
I flashed an LSI Logic firmware to it and it broke the BIOS (cannot do Ctrl+R) for booting purposes but allows other functionality to work normally.
I tried downgrading to a Dell firmware for Perc 6i but it won't work, not even with MegaCli
--2013-08-26 12:53:39-- http://downloads.dell.com/FOLDER00416606M/1/SAS-RAID_Firmware_W83M2_LN32_6.3.1-0003_A14.BIN
If you make changes to /etc/sysctl.conf (which are permanent and not lost during reboot) but want them to apply with rebooting just use the following command:
After that your changes will be enabled.........
After booting the net install, eg. over tftp here's the format you need to install the OS when it asks for the URL:
Obviously change the URL and path to match the architecture and version that you're looking for and you'll be good to go.........
I chose this because I heard a lot of stories about scams and that many providers I contacted said they can't unlock the Canadian I717s (one said "my Bell server" is down).
This method worked perfectly on my Bell I717M and should work for all I717 in Canada, I was able to insert a foreign SIMcard. This will work abroad too but remember entering CWM mode is different for I717's in other countries (at least theUS).
Step 1 - Root + CWM........
This booting error is because the Xen PV guest image uses the Xen kernel, this is not compatible with anything but a host running a Xen kernel.
I did a kpartx -av virtual.img and then it created some partitions that showed up in fdisk.
I mounted it and did a chroot into it and removed the xen kernel and installed a normal kernel but Xen still shows the same kernel in Grub (only the Xen one).
This is strange but it seems like this Xen PV guest has some sort of hidden or........
I've run into two issues with Lantronix based KVMs on various servers and here's how I solved them (with that said I like these units as they are Java based and OS independent and work very well, unike some other models like Startech).
1.) If you are connected by USB only and you're sure USB support from the BIOS is enabled, you just need to click the following in Lantronix
Interfaces -> Keyboard/Mouse
Check "Force USB Full Speed Mode", this fixed the issu........
This is something I often setup for clients because it's very helpful for people in datacenters, this allows custom OS installs on demand, you can customize it more by using kickstart etc.. but here's a base I use before customizing more:
This little script below will install everything you need to get booting by PXE Linux.
It also assumes you set a local IP (be sure not to overwrite your existing IP) on eth0:0 (note the :0) as 192.168.1.10 and it........
mdadm --manage /dev/md1 --add /dev/sdb1
mdadm: metadata format 00.90 unknown, ignored.
mdadm: metadata format 00.90 unknown, ignored.
mdadm: metadata format 00.90 unknown, ignored.
mdadm: /dev/sdb1 not large enough to join array
md1's first primary member /dev/sda3 has 57394 cylinders while the /dev/sdb1 has 57393 (1 less cylinder) which is why it won't work.
fdisk -l /dev/sda3
Disk /dev/sda3: 47........
One of my test Centos 5 containers was on a partition that filled up and it threw all sorts of errors and stopped responding but now I can't boot it again anymore.
All the console shows is the Linux Penguin on the top left corner and the xm console says "usbcore: registered new driver hub" and has halted there.
Centos 5 Xen container stuck/frozen won't boot on "usbcore: registered new driver hub"
Another great way of troubleshooting is booting fro........
I dread updating the kernel and rebooting to find the Ubuntu graphics aren't working and you have to manually intervene. This is usually because Ubuntu for whatever reason didn't update the drivers you need (eg. the manually compiled Nvidia Kernel driver that MUST be recompiled for each and every kernel update unfortunately).
The most common reason may be that "linux-source" hasn't been installed automatically on my system. I tried to manually reinstall the........
The normal solution would be as follows:
But what happens if that doesn't work? I haven't been able to find much documentation about how to find the list of displays and how their numbering works in Xorg.
Sometimes you'll get this error when trying to restart vino:
Cannot open display:
For some reason my display is not on 0.0........
SIOCSIFFLAGS: Cannot allocate memory
Failed to bring up eth0
This is on a Centos 5.5 machine with OpenVZ kernel 2.6.18-238.12.1.el5.028stab091.1PAE, I updated 3 systems with the same hardware to the same kernel and for some reason the network didn't come back.
This only happened once the first time I booted into the new kernel and hasn't happened again but this is a serious issue for those running systems from remote locations such as a datacente........
I think this will be useful to others because I have a server that kept crashing mysteriously during intense disk usage/RAID checks. It would only crash during the weekly RAID integrity check.
ThenI noticed during a reboot that not all CPUs were being brought up, as a result this actually creates much higher temperatures with the output I got from sensors, just booting the system produced higher than normal temperatures.
You can imagine that a full blown RAID check........
Moving to RAID was a pain.
What you have to do is the following from an existing install:
Create your mdadm RAID 1 array on your spare hard drive.
Start it with the missing disk.
rsync the entire contents of your current / to the md partition.
Here's a good way of doing it:
rsync -Pha --exclude=/proc/* --exclude=/sys/* --exclude=/mnt/* /. /mnt/md2........
I thought it was a GNOME problem because no matter what styles I applied Nautilus wouldn't change, but it was only Nautilus that wouldn't change/update anymore so I should have known.
The only fix/solutionI knew of other than rebooting is the following:
sudo killall nautilus
I tried closing all instances of nautilus that were visible and it had no effect.
And another thing to remember is that only will appearances/styles/themes not apply to N........
had trouble trying to revert Ubuntu 10.04 LTS from grub2, won't boot mdraid and did not even install mdadm during the installation!
I have tried moving back to GRUB 0.97
backed up original /boot and then copied /boot from an old Debian install. Modified device.map and menu.lst and put the appropriate kernels and initrd for Ubuntu back in /boot
I ran grub:
grub> setup (hd0)
Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1........
md: Autodetecting RAID arrays.
md: autorun ...
md: considering sdb1 ...
md: adding sdb1 ...
md: adding sda1 ...
md: created md0
md: kicking non-fresh sda1 from array!
raid1: raid set md0 active with 1 out of 2 mirrors
The md0 raid kicked sda1 ou........
I'm using Ubuntu 8.04 but anyone using older kernels will find this may apply to them. My Intel graphics are very slow with the default Xorg settings but by using "EXA" acceleration, scrolling down windows of text becomes pretty snappy.
Just edit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
Identifier "Configured Video Device"
I successfully created a single RAID 1 partition which includes /boot inside it and my root directory through the Debian installer. It said GRUB installed successfully but when I try booting the OS it seems GRUB can't read anything.
When trying to boot from GRUB
GRUB Loading stage 1.5.
GRUB loading, please wait...
I get "Error 2" when trying to boot Debian. I also notice from a LiveCD that........
I installed 5.5 with a 300GB RAID 1 partition (boot is also on this partition). It booted up fine the first few times until after I used a Live CD and accessed the array, and it became named /dev/md127 for some reason.
Now whenI boot into CentOS I get a kernel panic and different errors, once I got "invalid superblock", even though the array is fine (it didn't happen again, probably because I was sure to dismount and stop the mdadm array properly).
I'm not impressed with this motherboard, I was impressed with my Gigabyte AM3 board which seems to work flawlessly.
Everyone knows that the firmware is flawed, even though I have the F6, it still seems that the system doesn't reset properly or quickly enough.
Another HUGE problem is that in most Linux kernels the NIC won't work (if you try 10 times by rebooting it might). I also notice that you need to power down for it to work.
This board does not seem very com........
I'm not a fan of Asus and won't be buying another because of having to fight Asus over a bogus warranty denial (it's a long story but they only replied about how to RMA my unit weeks later on the EXACT day the warranty expired).
Anyway, it's just a matter of hitting F9 to do this, there's no need to worry about booting from USB or CD (unless of course you want a different OS eg. Windows XP Pro, Vista/7, or a flavor of Linux or Unix). Also remember that you need to fully/properl........
From the package "parted" you can use the command "partprobe" to re-read the partition table. I really hate rebooting, and that's what Iloved to hear about AHCI motherboards, that they allow hotswap so you don't have to reboot. But that's only as good as the OS, if the OS does not reload the partition table you won't be able to do anything with that new drive you attached without rebooting. Yes, even without re-reading the partiton table Linux will........
Upgrade Release Kernel TipsThis is for CentOS 3.1 to 3.8 but the methodology will apply everywhere.
I ran into a problem first of all with a non-booting system after running
#yum update centos-release
It took me to 3.8 and upgraded all the other packages [b:7e931c835d]BUT[/b:7e931c835d]
because of some stupid flags enabled in /etc/yum.conf the KERNEL WASN'T UPGRADED SO AFTER BOOTING, WELL IT DIDN'T BOOT OF COURSE :)
Updated to Version 3.8 and can't loginSSHD accepts my password but then hangs at "Last login: Wed Sep 13 21:30:02 2006 from"
This occurred during a yum update after upgrading my release, installing the new kernel and rebooting.
I got kicked out of sshd after seeing the following during yum update:
telnet 100 % done 85/476
tux 100 % done 86/476
ntsysv 100 % done 87/476
rpmdb-redhat 94 % done 88/476........
*This is a bug with initramfs support, all kernels after around 184.108.40.206 suffer from this problem.
If you try to include initramfs into your kernel (I mean actually building your binaries into the kernel) this will always happen. Obviously some code has changed in recent kernels that is present in all new kernels, it makes it impossible to boot
I've tried the latest 2.6.32, 2.6.33, 2.6.34, 2.6.35, 2.6.36, 2.6.37, 2.6.38 kernels and they all do this. I found one bug re........
Igot this after copying a VMWare image onto another machine in Debian.
SIOCSIFADDR No such device eth0 error while getting interface flags
1.) Find and edit the device line in persisent-net.rules note it will be prefixed with something like z25 or something else.
The easiest way is to comment anything out.
If you are feeling........
Server not using user level security and no password supplied.
tree connect failed: NT_STATUS_WRONG_PASSWORD
That happens when trying to use smbclient to connect to a share. The weird thing is that I can authnenticate just fine from Windows XP.
It is partially my mistake, I forgot this share does have a password. I've tried authenticating with the correct user and also with "Guest" because this works in Windows. In Linux I ........