/ - rtt - IT Resource

  • What DNS Options Does Active Directory Offer in Windows Server 2008,2012,2016 ?


    The first step is to ensure all relevant servers have the "Active Directory" role added and including the DNS portion. The preferred method and setup is that the first DNS server should be set to 127.0.0.1 in each domain member and the secondary DNS should be set to the next server. A good example is if you have 10 servers: Server 1 Primary DNS: 127.0.0.1 Second DNS: 172.16.254.2 ---------------------------------........
  • Linux What is umask (user mask) for file and directory creation permissions and how to calculate umask and change the defaults


    umask are the default permissions that are applied when a file or directory are created.  To see this in action simply just "touch filename" or "mkdir somedir" and you'll see what default permissions are applied. The first thing I always tell people you should know is to NEVER change the defaults unless you are making them more restrictive.  But they work well and if you change the defaults you could end up creating a file without permission to read........
  • Linux Permissions and Groups Real Usecase for Group Access


    I have a directory structure which the primary user needs full access on but wanted a user to access only a specific directory within the main directory (so they could write in there only and nowhere else). Here's what I did: [root@compevo8001 dllnow]# ls -alh drwxrwxr-x  2 someuser software  4.0K Oct 19  2017 ExpireYMD-2017-11-20 drwxrwxr-x  2 someuser software  4.0K Nov 19  2017 ExpireYMD-20........
  • genisoimage errors with long filenames and deep directory structures


    You'll have to violate the iso9660 standards but it is necessary if you want to preserve your filesystem and filenames and shouldn't be an issue as long as you are using a modern OS like Linux. genisoimage -o Backup-Myfiles.iso -r -J -joliet-long  /some/path/ You will get errors like below (even enabling joliet-long didn't help) genisoimage: Error: /some/filename.pdf have the same Joliet name Joliet tree sort failed. The -joliet-lo........
  • Proxmox understanding the directory structure and why an NFS datastore appears to be missing files/isos


    Proxmox at the root of your storage creates and "images" and "templates/iso" folder for VM images and iso's respectively.  It ignores files in any other location.........
  • Linux bash shell doesn't show username, hostname or current path fix solution


    Usually this is because when you created your user you added a user but didn't create their home directory and/or for some reason your .bashrc and .bash_profile in ~ (home) is broken/missing. In your home just create the following files with the following content to solve it: .bashrc and .bash_profile. To apply it just relogin/start a new bash session # .bash_profile # Get the aliases and funct........
  • PHP Displaying Blank Page on Apache


    Almost always the reason will be that the php.so file is missing but also that php.conf is misconfigured. In the problem machine it is actually PHP 7 installed so if you reference PHP 5 of course things wil be broken! Take for example here: cat /etc/httpd/conf.d/php.conf # # PHP is an HTML-embedded scripting language which attempts to make it # easy for developers to write dynamica........
  • Starting httpd: httpd: Syntax error on line 221 of /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf: Syntax error on line 6 of /etc/httpd/conf.d/php.conf: Cannot load /etc/httpd/modules/libphp5.so into server: /etc/httpd/modules/libphp5.so: cannot open shared object file:


    Starting httpd: httpd: Syntax error on line 221 of /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf: Syntax error on line 6 of /etc/httpd/conf.d/php.conf: Cannot load /etc/httpd/modules/libphp5.so into server: /etc/httpd/modules/libphp5.so: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory This is basically caused by the PHP module specified in php.conf being non existent.  The error tells us it couldn't fnd /etc/httpd/modules/libphp5.so........
  • error while loading shared libraries: libasound.so.2: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory


    ./tronwatch: error while loading shared libraries: libasound.so.2: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory [root@testing linux-unpacked-1.0.7]#   Solution: yum -y install alsa-lib-devel........
  • ./xmr-stak: error while loading shared libraries: libmicrohttpd.so.10: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory


    The solution is just to install libmicrohttpd-dev ./xmr-stak ./xmr-stak: error while loading shared libraries: libmicrohttpd.so.10: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory libmicrohttpd libmicrohttpd10 - library embedding HTTP server functionality libmicrohttpd-dbg - library embedding HTTP server functionality (debug) libmicrohttpd-dev - library embedding HTTP server functionality (development) $ sudo apt-get i........
  • ./nsgpucnminer: error while loading shared libraries: libOpenCL.so.1w: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory


    ./nsgpucnminer: error while loading shared libraries: libOpenCL.so.1w: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory  ........
  • convert.im6: Unknown field with tag 317 (0x13d) encountered. `TIFFReadDirectory' @ warning/tiff.c/TIFFWarnings/788.


    convert "file.TIF" "resize.jpg" convert.im6: Unknown field with tag 317 (0x13d) encountered. `TIFFReadDirectory' @ warning/tiff.c/TIFFWarnings/788. I've been getting this error in ImageMagick on some .tif files even though it seems to actually convert properly.........
  • Linux How To Rename Files


    To remove all spaces from all files in the current directory linux rename remove spaces rename "s/ //g" * The above won't work in Centos but in Debian based distros as rename in Centos doesn't work that way. See this more comprehensive article.........
  • OpenVZ container will not stop Child 546246 exited with status 1


    vzctl stop 4096 Removing stale lock file /vz/lock/4096.lck Stopping container ... Child 546213 exited with status 1 ^Z [1]+  Stopped                 vzctl stop 4096  ~]# rm /vz/lock/4096.lck rm: remove regular file `/vz/lock/4096.lck'? y  ~]# vzctl stop 4096 Stopping container ... Child 546246 exited with status 1........
  • Install NFS (Network File System) On Debian Linux Ubuntu Mint Howto


    sudo apt-get install nfs-kernel-server #oops there are no exports so it won't startsudo /etc/init.d/nfs-kernel-server start * Not starting NFS kernel daemon: no exports. #we will use the /tmp/nfstestshare directory for our NFS share mkdir /tmp/nfstestshare #add it to /etc/exports (basically what NFS checks to determine what to make an NFS share) /tmp/nfstestshare 192.168.1.5(rw,sync,........
  • VMWare 6.7 VCSA VSphere ESXi Management SSO Install Guide on Linux using the CLI


    #mount the VCSA DVD mount /dev/sr0 /mnt/cd #alternatively you could mount the iso directly mount -o loop vcsa.iso /your/mount/path #for this purpose we are using the CLI installer on Linux cd /mnt/cd/vcsa-cli-installer/lin64 #no it's not going to be that easy you can't just run vcsa-deploy like that you need to use a template or configured .json file ./vcsa-deploy Usage: vcsa-deploy [-h] [--version] [--supported-deploymen........
  • Howto install ioncube loader to PHP by Zend


    First of all download the raw .so file from zend: Copy the one relevant to your PHP version to  /usr/lib64/php/modules/ eg.: cp ioncube_loader_lin_5.3.so /usr/lib64/php/modules/ Then in your /etc/php.d/ directory create the file: vi /etc/php.d/zend.ini zend_extension = /usr/lib64/php/modules/ioncube_loader_lin_5.3.so After that restart apache/httpd and you'll be good to go!........
  • Linux Mint Black Screen after boot no graphics solution


    This is not the normal "black screen" issue and I was shocked to eventually find out why.  The normal advice of reconfiguring Xorg didn't work.  Even booting into "Recovery Mode" did not help. Here is the short end of the stick that fixed it: sudo apt-get install mdm mate-desktop-environment Yes you got it right, mdm and the mate-desktop-environment / gnome were somehow uninstalled.  This must be whe........
  • How To Install Seamonkey Web Browser on Debian Ubuntu Linux Mint


    It's a little tricky if you are running a 64-bit OS which most people will be. The weird thing is that the Seamonkey website for Linux seems to only provide a 32-bit download. seamonkey-2.49.2.tar.bz2 First unpack it tar -jxvf seamonkey-2.49.2.tar.bz2   Try to run it  ./seamonkey XPCOMGlueLoad error for file /home/queenlazina/Downloads/seamonkey/libmozgtk.so: lib........
  • SMF Forums / Simple Machines Forums Not Displaying Images Theme or Styles Properly using 127.0.0.1


    This is one thing that has me wondering about SMF.  It is apparently a known issue but in the latest version and new install nothing looked right because it was using http://127.0.0.1 to find everything!  How on earth would it ever do this or think it is normal? Excerpt of crazy html code it produces that causes the issue:     <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css&qu........
  • vzquota : (error) Quota on syscall for id 4532: No such file or directory vzquota on failed [3] OpenVZ Error and Solution


    Starting container... vzquota : (error) Quota on syscall for id 4532: No such file or directory vzquota on failed [3]   Solution vzquota drop 4532 Then start the container and it should work.  It actually happened after migrating the VPS manually to ano........
  • Apache htaccess Custom ErrorDocument not working properly for root home page 403 Error Issue and Solution


    So I have a domain "testdomain.com". Inside test domain.com's root is the following .htaccess: Options +FollowSymLinks -Indexes ErrorDocument 403 /launch/index.html Order Deny,Allow Deny From All Allow From 192.168.1.2 When you visit anything other than root things work fine.  Eg. if you visit http://testdomain.com/somedirfile.html It will show the right error in /launch/........
  • How To Install Windows Server 7 8 10 12 2008 2012 2014 2016 Servers Desktops using Linux tftp, dhcpd and samba


    It has been a big pain for a long-time to install Windows from a Linux environment.  I used to run a windows install server and it never worked right for some reason (the install would fail on most servers). Before getting start be sure to setup your samba share so once you boot into WinPE you can mount the install for whatever Windows you want /etc/samba/smb.conf [smbwinstall] path = /tftpboot/images/winstall guest ok = yes........
  • OpenVZ Solutions vzquota : (error) Can't open quota file for id 123123, maybe you need to reinitialize quota: No such file or directory


    Error: Unable to apply new quota values: quota not running Container start failed (try to check kernel messages, e.g. "dmesg | tail") Killing container ... Container was stopped Error: Unable to apply new quota values: quota not running Can't umount /vz/private/123123: Invalid argument [root@rtt 123123]# vzquota on 123123 vzquota : (error) Can't open quota file for id 123123, maybe you need to reinit........
  • Linux input/output error invalid program cannot read data on some CD-Rs and DVD-Rs on ASUS BW-16D1HT


    I've never seen this before in all of my years.  I have some very old CDs and DVDs 12-15 years old that seem not to work in this BD-R/DVD-R/CD-R Asus drive. The discs are fine actually and ironically they even work fine on a normal LG USB based BD-R drive! Here are the errors in Linux: [2914936.884924] attempt to access beyond end of device [2914936.884927] loop1: rw=0, want=730424, limit=688384 [2914954.556873] attempt to........
  • Unable to load dynamic library '/usr/lib64/php/modules/module.so' - /usr/lib64/php/modules/module.so: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory in Unknown on line 0


    Getting this error on Centos 6 with PHP 5.3 when just running "php -v"   PHP Warning:  PHP Startup: Unable to load dynamic library '/usr/lib64/php/modules/module.so' - /usr/lib64/php/modules/module.so: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory in Unknown on line 0 PHP Warning:  Cannot load module 'XCache' because conflicting module 'apc' is already loaded in Unknown on line 0 Solution:........
  • Syntax error on line 221 of /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf: Syntax error on line 6 of /etc/httpd/conf.d/php.conf: Cannot load /etc/httpd/modules/libphp5.so into server: /etc/httpd/modules/libphp5.so: cannot open shared object file: No such file or direct


    Stopping httpd:                                            [  OK  ] Starting httpd: httpd: Syntax error on line 221 of /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf: Syntax error on line 6 of /etc/httpd/conf.d/php.conf: Cannot load /etc/httpd/modules/libphp5.so into server: /etc/h........
  • Authentication refused: bad ownership or modes for directory /home/user SSH Public Key Authentication Failed Solution


    First of all I got this error after accidentally messing up my usergroup by using usermod -G user group When I would login using SSH keys it would fail: sshd[2020]: Authentication refused: bad ownership or modes for directory /home/one No worries, the fix is simple! chmod g-w /home/use........
  • ecryptfs how to mount or recover from a backup


    The easiest way to recover or mount an off-line ecryptfs directory is the built-in command from ecryptfs sudo ecryptfs-recover-private It will find your wrapped passphrase and ask for your password and mount it in tmp. Much easier especially when your current active OS is using ecryptfs too. This a fantastic tool when going through old backups.........
  • How to extract view contents of initramfs image gzip'd


    Very simple browse to your /boot directory It does make more sense to extract the image in its own directory eg "initramfs-blabla-dir" as it will literally extract directly to the pwd. cp initramfs.img someotherdir cd someotherdir zcat initramfs-3.10.0-514.el7.x86_64.img | cpio -idmv........
  • Migrate Centos 7 from Single HDD to mdadm RAID 10 array:


    Done on Centos 7.3 very important as clearly based on older guides it was a lot easier and more simpler!  Hint do not use grub2-install! One huge caveat if you are an oldschool user or sysadmin who has avoided UEFI booting The normal way will not work here if your Centos was using UEFI.  Newer systems use it by default. The easiest way to check is to do an fdisk -l if your sy........
  • How to change reserved blocks in Linux partition


    user@box:~$ sudo tune2fs -l /dev/md99 [sudo] password for user: tune2fs 1.42.9 (4-Feb-2014) Filesystem volume name:   <nuser> Last mounted on:          /mnt/md50 Filesystem UUID:          976a8655-2619-4587-878c-dab07f7b7652 Filesystem magic number:  0xEF53 Filesystem revision #:    1 (dynamic) Fi........
  • Centos 7 Cudaminer Nvidia setup guide


    I am using a GTX 1060 but replace the download for the driver with the correct/current version for your particular card by visiting: http://www.nvidia.com/Download/index.aspx?lang=en-us   yum install automake curl openssl-devel libcurl-devel gcc gcc-c++ yum -y install kernel-devel-`uname -r` yum -y install unzip #the........
  • Linux Mint Intel Screen Tearing Horizontal Line Solution Fix


    sudo mkdir -p /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/ sudo vi /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-intel.conf   Type "i" and enter the following: Section "Device"   Identifier      "Intel Graphics"   Driver          "intel"   Option          &........
  • process_usershare_file: stat of /var/lib/samba/usershares/dump failed. Permission denied - samba error solution


    [2017/06/12 21:14:04.991169,  0] ../source3/param/loadparm.c:3259(process_usershare_file)   process_usershare_file: stat of /var/lib/samba/usershares/dump failed. Permission denied Issue was the parent directory needed chmod 755........
  • Linux Mint Install Netboot PXE Guide Howto


    *Update so this doesn't work it must be something to do with the path of nfs or something else but the installer fails with "Installer crashed" at the end whereas with the CD/USB it works. This assumes you've already installed and configured a separate PXE/DHCP server somewhere else and your /tftpboot directory is setup. This is for Linux Mint 18.1 but generally applies to most versions although you may have tro change things like "casper"........
  • wget how to resume download!


    It's very simple you just use the "-c" switch and wget will resume the file (make sure you are in the same directory) or specify -O /path/to/partialdownload.zip wget -c http://someurl/file.zip........
  • text to speech for Linux


    espeak - is horrible and sounds very old and robotic echo "hello there"|espeak #don't know how to use mbrola and plugins cicero jovie just seems to be a graphical interface to espeak There is also sbreader/sapi Google's Text To Speech Works Quite Well #!/bin/bash say() { local IFS=+;/usr/bin/mplayer -ao alsa -really-quiet -noconsolec........
  • tar extraction changes ownership of /root directory


    I have a tar and when extracting it changes /root to a uid and gid of the source server which is bad especially for /root! You can get around this by extracting as follows: Add the -o switch which means "--no-same-owner" tar -o -zxvf sometar.tar.gz........
  • zip warning: name not matched: in Linux Solution


    There are usually two reasons for this. #1 The most common is that you need to enable the -r (recursive) flag with zip to make it recurse into directories. So the solution is to use -r zip -r somefile.zip yourfiles #2 If you are using bash scripting based on ls without the full path or for some other reason the full path is missing, zip looks for the files in the current directory so this will always fail.........
  • ls in Linux with full directory path with files howto


    Normally an ls will just produce the actual contents of the current or target directory eg. ls mydir myfile1 myfile2 myfile3 But what if you need to find the full or relative path to another program that cares whether that be zip or etc.? You need the "-d" switch and the asterisk inside the actual directory. ls -d mydir/* mydir/myfil........
  • bash how to check if a symlink exists as a file or directory


    To check if a file/directory is a symlink in bash: if [ -L /some/path/file ]; then echo "OK we're a symlink" fi   That's all there is to it.........
  • ecryptfs errors


    ecryptfs-mount-private Enter your login passphrase: Inserted auth tok with sig [ee16d84] "into the user session keyring mount: No such file or directory" [  156.118113] ecryptfs_mount: kern_path() failed [  156.118431] Reading sb failed; rc = [-2] [  164.233055] traps: mate-notificati[3472] trap int3 ip:7f43d7002c13 sp:7fff162c6600 error:0 [  166.017061] ecryptfs_mount: kern_path() failed........
  • Linux how to reformat html file code solution


    The solution is simply "tidy"/Tidy-HTML.  It will take your poorly formatted HTML code (and I mean files that span just a few lines that are unreadable) and fix it up. Note the command below does everything in place.  *Make sure you take a backup of all .html files* It also seems to break html5 code/templates so beware. tidy -im yourfile.html An automated way in bash:........
  • How To Disable htaccess inheritance or exclude a directory


    The only real way us to do the following in the root of your site's .htaccess RewriteRule ^somedirectory-not-to-inherit/.*$ - [L]........
  • root/home directory has ownership changed to the wrong user/owner mysteriously


    I figured out what caused this but don't have the solution just yet.  I would deploy a certain script from a .tar.gz to some servers and found that /root was always owned by user and group "1000.1000".  This corresonded to the user who made the .tar.gz. For some reason when extract normally with "tar -zxvf file.tar.gz" it impacts the parent directories ownership.  There must be some recursion going on or possibly the .tar.gz but I haven't f........
  • sshd[10470]: Authentication refused: bad ownership or modes for directory /root


    This can be a case of bad permissions or modes as the error says.  Normally one would assume permissions but often a script may change ownership of /root to something else. This was the case half the time I've encountered this. So in short make sure ownership is correct chown -R root.root /root........
  • Unable to mount location Failed to retrieve share list from server: No such file or directory solution


    Cannot even "Browse Network" when clicking on "Windows Network" Unable to mount location Failed to retrieve share list from server: No such file or directory logs: [2017/02/14 00:16:44.271314,  0] ../source3/nmbd/nmbd.c:58(terminate)   Got SIGTERM: going down... [2017/02/13 17:35:41.797944,  0] ../lib/util/become_daemon.c:124(daemon_ready) &........
  • ERROR 2013 (HY000): Lost connection to MySQL server during query


    The solution is simple but strange, if you copy your /var/lib/mysql directory to another server and think it will work, be sure to check if you have /var/log/mysql and binary log files.  If you do, the server will not work and will give you errors like below and crash without the proper log files. UPDATE user SET password=password("newpass") WHERE user='root'; flush privileges; ERROR 2013 (HY000): Lost connection to MySQL server durin........
  • grep only certain file types howto


    This can save a lot of time, otherwise grep will go through an entire directory recursively searching every type of file but what if you are sure you only need to search txt or php files? grep -r -i --include=*.php "what you are searching for" /the/path/to/search........
  • OpenVZ Solution CPT ERR: c02fa000,73 :CPT: lock fd is closed incorrectly: 1 and vps-net_add ERROR: Unable to add route ip route add 192.168.5.2 dev venet0


    The only solution after trying many suggestions was to simply restart the "vz" service (definitely not preferable). Even doing an ifdown and ifup for venet0 did not help. ifup venet0 Bringing up interface venet0: Configuring interface venet0: net.ipv4.conf.venet0.send_redirects = 0 RTNETLINK answers: Network is down Some errors from log:   CPT ERR: d2dc60........
  • Linux How To Recover Partition Table from Kernel and Restore Centos/Debian etc..


    We've all done this at some point, you work on the wrong shell window and this was my first time making this mistake but I deleted a partition table in fdisk, recreated it and saved it with "wq" and even ran partprobe!  If you haven't rebooted yet then you can still recover your partition table, otherwise you're in big trouble. Fortunately since it was a live system and in use the kernel still had to use the old table like below:........
  • weird mv error mv: inter-device move failed:


    mv -f /home/user/Downloads/android-studio/ /mnt/sda3/ mv: inter-device move failed: ‘/home/user/Downloads/android-studio/’ to ‘/mnt/sda3/android-studio’; unable to remove target: Is a directory........
  • Apache Log Error Message when starting


    Usage: geoiplookup [-h] [-?] [-d custom_dir] [-f custom_file] [-v] [-i] [-l] <ipaddress|hostname> Usage: geoiplookup [-h] [-?] [-d custom_dir] [-f custom_file] [-v] [-i] [-l] <ipaddress|hostname> grep: Address: No such file or directory grep: not: No such file or directory grep: found: No such file or directory sh: -c: line 1: syntax error near unexpected token `|' sh: -c: line 1: `|cut -d ',' -f 2'  ........
  • OpenVZ Migration Hostnode Containers from Centos 5 to Centos 6


    migrating from an old OpenVZ (Centos 5) to new OpenVZ (Centos 6) Also if migrating from 32-bit HN to 64-bit your RAM will probably be much bigger than it should be! 16x bigger eg. 32bit HN:              total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached Mem:&nb........
  • Openvz error solutions Container already locked (error) can't lock quota file, some quota operations are performing for id 1200


    rm /vz/lock/1200.lck rm: remove regular file `/vz/lock/1200.lck'? y vzctl start 1200 Container already locked vzctl start 1200 Starting container ... vzquota : (error) can't lock quota file, some quota operations are performing for id 1200 vzquota on failed [7] vzquota off 1200 vzctl start 1200 vzquota on 1200 root@rttbox ~]# vzquota off 1200 vzquota : (........
  • Mint/Ubuntu/Debian error twisted/test/raiser.c:4:20: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory #include Python.h


    Simple solution install python-dev sudo apt-get install python-dev libyaml-dev libpam-dev........
  • How to modify HTML/Themeforest Themes to work in any path statically using unix/linux's sed command


    For themes and custom CMS setups, the typical HTML theme is not ready to go at all but here are some common sed commands (search and replace that will get most of them working without breaking as you'd expect). The problem is that often the theme directory will be separate from the content and this will break the relative paths that these themes use. sed -i s/'href="'/'href="/themes/yourtheme/'/g index.html sed -i s/'src="'/'src="/themes/y........
  • cp copy all contents of directory to another one including hidden files and folders howto


    cp -a /your/source/. /your/dest/ -a preserves all file atributes and symlinks the "." at the end of /source/ includes all hidden files such as .htacess, .bash_history, .ssh etc.. The / in /dest/ makes sure the contents go into it instead of replacing /dest itself (eg. if you did not have the / at the end).........
  • Cannot load /etc/httpd/modules/mod_file_cache.so into server: /etc/httpd/modules/mod_file_cache.so:


    Stopping httpd:                                            [FAILED] Starting httpd: httpd: Syntax error on line 73 of /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf: Cannot load /etc/httpd/modules/mod_file_cache.so into server: /etc/httpd/modules/mod_file_cache.so: cannot open shared obje........
  • Nvidia Linux Card not working due to LSI 9200/SAS2008 IRQ conflict


    At first my BIOS said the card may not work right because there is no more option ROM space. I disabled the Option ROM for both LSI 1068 and 2008 chipsets, Network Boot ROM and most other PCI slots, Serial Port, etc... and the message went away but the card still does not work properly. But it still cannot initialize the card properly (does not work): [   33.943272] NVRM: This PCI I/O region assigned to your NVIDIA device is invalid:........
  • Apache Vhost HowTo Serve Same Content using a different domain and IP


    There are a few ways of doing this and all basically involve using the reverse proxy or "ProxyPass" feature of Apache to accomplish it. 1.) Create a normal vhost and simply symlink the root directory of the site you want to mirror. Eg. originalsite.com and newsite.com /vhosts/originalsite.com/httpdocs You would symlink like this: ln -s /vhosts/originalsite.com/httpdocs vhosts/originalsite.com/........
  • Redirect www host to non-www Linux Apache modrewrite


    The below forces all request to your domain to go to the main non-www root domain. Updated code: RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !=domain.com RewriteRule ^(.*)$ https://newurl.com/subdir/$1 [R=301,L] If you don't want it to go to a subdirectory: RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !=domain.com RewriteRule ^(.*)$ https://newurl.com/$1 [R=301,L] Bad code: This code is bad beca........
  • Debian Ubuntu Mint Samba Share config file location


    /var/lib/samba/usershares But note that it is just simple file sharing if you need directory mask, create mask etc... you still need to edit the smb.conf file to create your share. Here is an example file: comment= usershare_acl=S-1-1-0:R,S-1-22-1-1000:F guest_ok=y sharename=BabyPhotos........
  • Cannot get mono to work properly on Linux Mint


      mono/wine not working in Ubuntu/Linux Mint/Debian: The assembly mscorlib.dll was not found or could not be loaded. It should have been installed in the `/usr/lib/mono/2.0/mscorlib.dll' directory.   solution: sudo apt-get install mono-complete      Problems: mono does not work well for even simple things like a Winrar self extracting .exe fi........
  • Debian 8 Jessie in Linux OpenVZ Container does not work on Centos host


    It sounds like this is corrected in later versions of the OpenVZ kernel but I am not sure, it may also be that a much newer kernel is needed and Centos may not have a recent enough kernel. *Debain 7.0 however does work fine as a temporary fix or work around. Debian 8 OpenVZ no IP and networking not working: lo        Link encap:Local Loopback     ........
  • How to scp transfer a file in Linux with spaces


    Say you have a path like this "/some/path/here with spaces/".  If you try to transfer it you will get a message along the lines of: scp -rp 192.168.0.12:"/some/path/here space/" . scp: /some/path/here: No such file or directory scp: space: No such file or directory You can escape each space but what a pain that is especially if you have multiple spaces in the path. The simplest way is to use the follow........
  • bash script get directory location and path of script howto tutorial


    So the situaton is this, you depend on things being relevant to where your bash script is and to be safe you want it to be dynamic (eg. do not hard code that we switch to /abc/dir but rather detect where script.sh is located). scriptlocation="$( cd "$( dirname "${BASH_SOURCE[0]}" )" && pwd )" The path is then contained the the variable "scriptlocation" so you can cd to it in your script etc............
  • Centos/obfsproxy errors


    I never did get it working, it is too bad as obfsproxy should really be an option and integrated into the OpenVPN client and server or something similar:   yum -y install python-pip python-devel No package python-pip available. #install the EPEL repo python-pip install obfsproxy python-pip install obfsproxy -bash: python-pip: command not found pip install obfsproxy    &........
  • Linux CLI command to rip audio CD and encode convert to MP3s


    This command rips the audio tracks to .wav files *I recommend making a new directory with the name of the audio disc first and executing everything from within that directory below. cdparanoia -B Use the lame mp3 encoder to encode each one with this script: *Note that this will encode any other files ending in "cdda.wav" for track in `ls *cdda.wav`; do lame -b 192 $track; done........
  • Unable to configure RSA server private key SSL Library Error: 185073780 error:0B080074:x509 certificate routines:X509_check_private_key:key values mismatch


    [Tue Jun 23 02:05:52 2015] [error] Unable to configure RSA server private key [Tue Jun 23 02:05:52 2015] [error] SSL Library Error: 185073780 error:0B080074:x509 certificate routines:X509_check_private_key:key values mismatch The above is an accurate description of what is wrong. In our case the client made a simple mistake of thinking the localhost.crt and localhost.key (default key locations for Apache SSL in Centos) were in the same directory but they we........
  • dir2slideshow Centos rpm requirements


    yum -y install dvdauthor ffmpeg mjpegtools sox bc   rpm -ivh dvd-slideshow-0.8.4-2.noarch.rpm Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]    1:dvd-slideshow          ########################################### [100%] /usr/bin/dir2slideshow: line 553: bc: command not f........
  • bash script test if directory exists


    It's very simple test to see if the directory exists or not.  See the directory test in bash below: if [ -d /home/mydir ]; then echo "my directory exists" fi........
  • Centos automatic ifcfg-eth0 scripts based on list of IPs from bash


    <p>It's a basic script that reads the file &quot;ips.txt&quot; in the current directory and then creates a corresponding ifcfg file</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><code>#!/bin/bash<br /> GATEWAY=192.168.1.1</code></p> <p><code>NETMASK=255.255.255.0</code></p> <p>device=eth0</p> <p><code><br /> counter=0<br /> for ips in `cat ips.txt`; do<br........
  • libguestfs tools howto guide for managing virtual machine images


    libguestfs tools howto guide for managing virtual machine images To mount a partition #mount the kvmuser102821.img image and the /dev/sda1 partition from it to the local directory "mount" guestmount -a kvmuser102821.img -m /dev/sda1 mount   To list partition info on the image: virt-df image.img Filesystem          ........
  • Thunderbird Error An error occurred while loading or saving configuration information for thunderbird. Some of your configuration settings may not work properly.


    This error seems to happen randomly and especially when trying to send e-mails.  Apparently it's a long-standing GNome bug but is also partially the default of Thunderbird depending on who you ask.  There is no known fix that I'm aware of except to upgrade gnome and the gvfs package but this is not an option for older versions/distributions. An error occurred while loading or saving configuration information for thunderbird. Some of your configuration settings may not........
  • SolusVM error error: Failed to create domain from /home/kvm/kvm101/kvm101.xml error: cannot open file '/dev//dev/kvmcontainer/kvm101_img': No such file or directory


    error: Failed to create domain from /home/kvm/kvm101/kvm101.xml error: cannot open file '/dev//dev/kvmcontainer/kvm101_img': No such file or directory This is caused by what we consider a quark in SolusVM that I helped a client with. SolusVM has as config for the "LVM volume name" and does not enforce any convention. Naturally most technical people would use the actual path eg "/dev/kvmcontainer". However th........
  • Openvz Can't load ploop library: libploop.so: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory


    Can't load ploop library: libploop.so: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory The above happens when you haven't installed the ploop tools: yum -y install ploop........
  • heartbeat compile errors with rpmbuild


    c1: warnings being treated as errors stonith_signal.h:34: error: 'stonith_signal_set_simple_handler' defined but not used gmake[3]: *** [apcmaster.lo] Error 1 gmake[3]: Leaving directory `/root/rpmbuild/BUILD/heartbeat-1.2.4/lib/plugins/stonith' gmake[2]: *** [all-recursive] Error 1 gmake[2]: Leaving directory `/root/rpmbuild/BUILD/heartbeat-1.2.4/lib/plugins' gmake[1]: *** [all-recursive] Error 1 gmake[1]: Leaving directory `/root/rpmbuild/BUI........
  • Wordpress Security Hole, Plug it by manually installing themes and plugins


    It's always bothered me how Wordpress basically forces the user to provide their hosting credentials to install themes and plugins.  How do know for sure the data is not being saved, intercepted and being provided backdoor access to the NSA or other agencies or even just being misused by others with access? Here's how to close the security hole above and if you're already given Wordpress your credentials make sure you change everything associated it with it.  Eg. change your........
  • Howto Convert Xen Image to KVM


    #count=10000 makes an image of 10000MB make sure your image is at least the same as your existing dd if=/dev/zero of=yourimage.img bs=1M count=10000 # losetup -fv newimage.raw # fdisk -cu /dev/loop0 # kpartx -a /dev/loop0 # dd if=<xenimage> of=/dev/mapper/loop0p1 # e2fsck -f /dev/mapper/loop0p1 # resize2fs /dev/mapper/loop0p1 # a lot of guides tell you to edit /etc/fst........
  • OpenVZ mismatched kernel and dev when compiling.


    ./configure ./configure: line 91: cd: /lib/modules/2.6.32-042stab084.25/build: No such file or directory Error: kernel version not found. Please make sure your kernel is configured. dr-xr-xr-x.  4 root root   4096 Feb 21 06:13 .. lrwxrwxrwx   1 root root     45 Feb 21 06:13 build -> ../../../usr/src/kernels/2.6.32-042stab084.25 drwxr-xr-x   2 root root   4096 Feb 12 20........
  • Centos Howto Upgrade to PHP 5.3 from 5.2


    It's not as simple as "yum install" as you can see below and it doesn't stop there.  yum install php53 Loaded plugins: fastestmirror Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile  * rpmforge: mirror.us.leaseweb.net  * extras: centos.mirror.rafal.ca  * updates: centos.mirror.nexicom.net  * base: centos.mirror.nexicom.net  * addons: centos.mirror.nexicom.net Setting up Install Process........
  • Howto Execute PHP from within an HTML or other file with an htaccess file on Apache


    Add this to a new ".htaccess" file inside the directory where the .html resides: AddType application/x-httpd-php .php .html........
  • Ubuntu/Debian how to update FlashPlayer manually


    Download the latest from Adobe's site and unzip it, enter the directory it creates and type the following: sudo cp libflashlayer.so /usr/lib/adobe-flashplugin/ sudo cp -r usr/* /usr........
  • Update wordpress script


    Requirements: 1.) Enter your root wordpress directory. 2.) Download the latest wordpress.zip to it. #backup your current files just in case cp -a . wp-current-bk`date +%Y%m%d` unzip wordpress-3.7.1.zip rm -rf wp-includes rm -rf wp-admin echo y|cp -a wordpress/wp-includes . echo y|cp -a wordpress/wp-admin . echo y|cp -a wordpress/wp-content/* wp-content echo y|cp wordpress/* .........
  • CPanel Log File Locations for access_log,error_log, mysql


    All Errors (CPanel does not report by domain, but puts everything in a single log which I think is a bit silly and annoying): /usr/local/apache/logs/error_log Access_Logs They are found within the home directory of the site user eg.: /home/admin/access-logs/yoursite.com MySQL Logs  /var/lib/mysql/yourhostname.err........
  • bash Linux basename and directory name, get the actual directory and file


    Example: basename /var/log/messages messages As shown above the "basename" utility gives you the end filename separately.   dirname /var/log/messages /var/log As shown above the "dirname" utlity gives you just the utility even if you pass it a specific file. The above two utilities are very helpful in Bash scripting when working with files and directories co........
  • kvm centos cannot compile error


    ./configure ./configure: cannot locate gcc 3.x. please install it or specify with --qemu-cc yum -y install gcc make ./configure ./configure: cannot locate gcc 3.x. please install it or specify with --qemu-cc yum -y install compat-gcc-* ./configure Error: Could not find alsa Make sure to have the alsa libs and headers installed. yum -y install alsa-lib-devel ./configure........
  • tar how to include hidden files solution


    tar -czf yourfile.tar.gz . The . dot is the crucial part, normally many will use * and that will exclude hidden files by default which is very undesirable as many hidden files are important such as .htaccess and conf files in your home directory etc..  It seems the default behavior of tar should be the opposite but these are all very old tools.........
  • Show Directory/File Listing in httpd/Apache Howto with htaccess


    Add this to htaccess: Options +Indexes After that people will be able to browse files and directories of your site.........
  • vzquota : (error) Quota on syscall for id 42131: No such file or directory vzquota on failed [3]


    Starting container... vzquota : (error) Quota on syscall for id 42131: No such file or directory vzquota on failed [3] Solution cd /var/vzquota mv quota.42131 quota.42131-disable  vzctl start 42131 Starting container... Initializing quota ... Container is mounted Adding IP address(es): Setting CPU units: 1000 Container start in progress...  ........
  • CPanel suhosin install failed


    /scripts/phpextensionmgr install PHPSuHosin Updating md5sum list Fetching http://httpupdate.cpanel.net/cpanelsync/easy/targz.yaml (connected:0).......(request attempt 1/12)...Resolving httpupdate.cpanel.net...(resolve attempt 1/65)...     Fetching http://httpupdate.cpanel.net/mirror_addr_list (connected:0).......(request attempt 1/3)......connecting to 74.50.120.123...@74.50.120.123......connected......receiving...100%......request success......Done........
  • LibreOffice Recovery Automatically Saved Documents


    Browse to this directory: ~/.config/libreoffice/3/user/backup/........
  • Unixbench Testing


    The first is a dual CPU AMD Opteron 2373EE (4 cores x 2) and I think it did bad because it has some old 250GB SATAs which can only do about 65 MB/s max sequential reads.  I think it should have blown away the second (AMD X4 640 Quad Core).   [root@fs12home unixbench-4.1.0-wht-2]# ./Run make all make[1]: Entering directory `/root/unixbench-4.1.0-wht-2' Checking distribution of files ./pgms  exists ./src  exists........
  • LSI MegaRAID Adventures, Guide and HowTo


    LSi Megaraid At first it was configured as a RAID 0, then I deleted the Virtual Disk Group. I thought both drives would be shown and detected in Linux as sda and sdb but it actually shows nothing. To make them work you have to hit Ctrl+R before the system boots (when prompted) and create a Virtual Disk Group.  In my case I created each one as RAID 0 (with a single drive only) as I just wanted JBOD but there is no such option or default in these Dell Pe........
  • open /dev/kvm: No such file or directory failed to initialize KVM: Operation not permitted - Solution


    open /dev/kvm: No such file or directory failed to initialize KVM: Operation not permitted [   96.084502] kvm: disabled by bios Any of the above means that "Virtualization" is not enabled in your BIOS.  Most servers and Desktops (non-mainstream) can do this no problem but leave it off by default.  Note that some systems even though the CPU supports it, don't allow enabling of Virtualization for some reason (especially some lap........
  • mkdir: cannot create directory 'test': Disk quota exceeded - Solution


    mkdir: cannot create directory 'test': Disk quota exceeded You are out of inodes usually: df -i Filesystem            Inodes   IUsed   IFree IUse% Mounted on /dev/simfs            200000  200000       0  100% / none      ........
  • mkdir(): Too Many Links - The Solution and Problem in ext3 filesystems


    The error itself "mkdir(): Too Many Links" is not very useful, but I'll translate it into plain English. It means you've reached the filesystem's limit of how many directories can be created in a single directory. In this case for ext3 the limit is 32000 and it was exceeded. What's the solution?  The simple solution is to move those directories into more subdirectories possibly sorting them by date, alphabet or numerically. ........
  • EXT4-fs error (device md20): ext4_add_entry: bad entry in directory #2552670:


    Jun 12 10:30:53 kernel: [724514.291670] EXT4-fs error (device md20): ext4_add_entry: bad entry in directory #2552670: rec_len % 4 != 0 - offset=216, inode=2553603, rec_len=94, name_len=84 Jun 12 10:30:53 kernel: [724514.292400] EXT4-fs error (device md20): ext4_add_entry: bad entry in directory #2552670: rec_len % 4 != 0 - offset=216, inode=2553603, rec_len=94, name_len=84 This happened when an unprivileged user was backing up a Windows filesystem, once they ha........
  • find only directory names in Linux


    find / -name 'thedirectorytofind' -type d That's all there is to it and now you don't have to get a listing of all the files along with it. Another cleaner solution that supports wildcards is the following find prep-*/dvd-slideshow_temp*/ -type d  ........
  • Either the lower file is not in a valid eCryptfs format, or the key could not be retrieved. Plaintext passthrough mode is not enabled; returning -EIO


    I'm using ecryptfs and was suddenly unable to access or even ls my home directory (but every subfolder is accessible).  It just hangs and throws this message in messages/dmesg: Either the lower file is not in a valid eCryptfs format, or the key could not be retrieved. Plaintext passthrough mode is not enabled; returning -EIO I read somewhere that perhaps some file or folder is owned by root somehow, sure enough there are some and sudoing to root allows me to........
  • SSH Can't Login/Hang


    Client Log OpenSSH_4.3p2, OpenSSL 0.9.8e-fips-rhel5 01 Jul 2008 debug1: Reading configuration data /etc/ssh/ssh_config debug1: Applying options for * debug1: Connecting to 192.168.1.253 [192.168.1.253] port 22. debug1: Connection established. debug1: permanently_set_uid: 0/0 debug1: identity file /root/.ssh/identity type -1 debug1: identity file /root/.ssh/id_rsa type 1 debug1: identity file /root/.ssh/id_d........
  • Linux OpenOffice Convert .doc/documents to PDF format with unoconv


    Install unoconv unoconv -d document -f pdf file.doc Change "file.doc" to the name of your document.  Note you could specify *.doc and it will convert all .doc's in the current directory to pdf which is very handy. unoconv uses the cli from OpenOffice to do this, OpenOffice actually doesn't have an easy way I've found of doing this despite it having the functionality.  ........
  • OpenVZ - how to manually restore a VPS from another host or backup


    There are 3 pieces that are required to restore and make it work (of course consider if any kernel modules need to re-enabled and if you need to change the IPs): Copy the vz/private/VEID directory to /vz/private Copy the /etc/vz/conf/VEID.conf to /etc/vz/conf/ mkdir /vz/root/VEID After that you should be able to see the VE in vzlist -a You should then be able to start it normally.........
  • How to install GRUB to the MBR of a disk image.


     cat | grub --device-map=/dev/null Now pay close to the attention of the beginning. Type: "device (hd0) VPS.img" this is telling what hd0 will be to GRUB and we're telling it the disk image file "VPS.img" in the current directory is hd0, you can specify alternate paths and image names of course.     GNU GRUB  version 0.97  (640K lower / 3072K upper memory)  [ Minimal BASH-li........
  • kvm cannot boot xen guest using lvm


    This booting error is because the Xen PV guest image uses the Xen kernel, this is not compatible with anything but a host running a Xen kernel. I did a kpartx -av virtual.img and then it created some partitions that showed up in fdisk. I mounted it and did a chroot into it and removed the xen kernel and installed a normal kernel but Xen still shows the same kernel in Grub (only the Xen one). This is strange but it seems like this Xen PV guest has some sort of hidden or........
  • Setup PXE Boot using Centos and dhcpd, tftp and syslinux


    This is something I often setup for clients because it's very helpful for people in datacenters, this allows custom OS installs on demand, you can customize it more by using kickstart etc.. but here's a base I use before customizing more: This little script below will install everything you need to get booting by PXE Linux. It also assumes you set a local IP (be sure not to overwrite your existing IP) on eth0:0 (note the :0) as 192.168.1.10 and it........
  • Howto Copy/Backup/Restore All Firefox Settings/Preferences/Addons/Bookmarks to another computer/desktop


    I've used rsync again for this because I found it very simple, I've only excluded the Cache directory since it's not necessary and could be several GB in size. rsync -Phaz --exclude=Cache/* user@remotehost.com:/home/user/.mozilla/firefox/profile.default/* /home/user/.mozilla/firefox/ec1n9opl.default/ This is a great way once again to get going how you were on the old/remote computer fairly quickly.  It even restores all of your history in........
  • Samsung Galaxy Note Upgrade to ICS 4.0 microSDHC card not detected/dataloss after upgrading - possible solutions


    I backed up everything in the /mnt/sd_card directory thinking that some dataloss could occur for some reason but purposely left my microSDHC unbacked up thinking that "it won't touch that since it's external" and Samsung's and other manufacturers website even say this (that it won't be affected and not to worry etc). Apparently I was wrong, my microSD was "undetected" and asked to be formatted after the upgrade (there goes 3-months worth of family photos).  No........
  • xen how to resize an image properly


    The best way I could figure out is to use another guest of some sort to do this, while assigning the disk that needs to be resized to the same guest. So say we have /dev/xvda as the guests drive and we've booted it up. We also have /dev/xvdb (this is going to be the image/disk to be resized). In this case it's based on an ext3/4 image. Run e2fsck on it to ensure there are no filesystem errors. e2fsck /dev/xvdb........
  • Joomla Error - JFolder::create: Could not create directory


    JFolder::create: Could not create directory Plugin Install: Failed to create directory:   This can occur when trying to upload content or when installing themes/templates. It's usually not a permissions issue per say but doing a 777 (which is very insecure) will fix it.  But the real problem solution is that the owner of the files is different than the owner of the Apache process/server. Eg. if your Apache is running as user "apache........
  • Windows Secret Hidden Temp Directory to free out of disk space issues


    Replace "Administrator" with your username. C:Documents and SettingsAdministratorLocal SettingsTemp I have often found several gigabytes of temporary files in there!  Just be warned that they may not all be deletable if the files are being used by open programs (so close everything you can). This helped me in a pinch many times when for apparently no reason gigs of disk space are being used for an unknown reason.........
  • Firefox Error ./firefox-bin: error while loading shared libraries: libxul.so: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory


    When double clicking nothing happens/it doesn't open and when executing as ./firefox-bin you get this error: ./firefox-bin: error while loading shared libraries: libxul.so: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory All the .so files reside within the directory of Firefox that you extract from the binary .tar.gz from Mozilla, it's just that your computer doesn't know/recognize where to look for them. Solution:........
  • Xen how to mount disk images off-line and access data


    fdisk -lu VPS.img last_lba(): I don't know how to handle files with mode 81ed You must set cylinders. You can do this from the extra functions menu. Disk VPS.img: 0 MB, 0 bytes 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 0 cylinders, total 0 sectors Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes      Device Boot      Start         End   ........
  • File /etc/vz/conf/ve-vps.basic.conf-sample not found: No such file or directory - Openvz Error solution


    Stuff like this always happens/breaks after a vzctl update, whether it's new parameters being added or required etc.. File /etc/vz/conf/ve-vps.basic.conf-sample not found: No such file or directory Fix the value of CONFIGFILE in /etc/vz/vz.conf Creation of container private area failed Warning: distribution not specified in CT config, using defaults from /etc/vz/dists/default WARNING: /etc/vz/conf/4400.conf not found: No such file or directory........
  • wget download all files on page/directory automatically recursively


    Have you ever found a website/page that has several or perhaps dozens, hundreds or thousands of files that you need downloaded but don't have the time to manually do it? wget's recursive function called with -r does that, but also with some quirks to be warned about. If you're doing it from a standard web based directory structure, you will notice there is still a link to .. and wget will follow that. Eg. let's say you have files in http://serverip/documen........
  • samba/smbd connection to share problems and solutions


    I'll start by showing some problems in the logs: [2011/08/07 16:22:06,  0] param/loadparm.c:8569(process_usershare_file)   process_usershare_file: stat of /var/lib/samba/usershares/movie failed. Permission denied [2011/08/07 16:22:06,  1] smbd/service.c:676(make_connection_snum)   create_connection_server_info failed: NT_STATUS_ACCESS_DENIED That means you don't have permission to access the fi........
  • Linux how to use find recursively to find certain types of files/extensions


    Normally if you're in a certain directory you could do: find *.txt and it will work as expected, but it won't work recursively through child directories, here's the correct way to do it: find . -type f -name *.txt The "-type f" is optional because that means only files, but we could have specified d for directory etc... The above command will work recursively as you'd expect.  In that way I find "find" to be un........
  • MYSQL Error Can't find file: './wf/Sessions.frm' (errno: 13) Solution


    mysql errors even though these files do exist: 110405 13:21:37  InnoDB: Operating system error number 13 in a file operation. InnoDB: The error means mysqld does not have the access rights to InnoDB: the directory. InnoDB: File name ./ibdata1 InnoDB: File operation call: 'open'. InnoDB: Cannot continue operation. 110405 13:26:15  InnoDB: Operating system error number 13 in a file operation. InnoDB: The error means my........
  • diff: memory exhausted


    I don't have a solution other than to use rsync, I used diff on about 1.7TB of data which includes hundreds of thousands if not millions of small files to ensure nothing was missing or corrupt. diff didn't even get past the first large directory without spitting that error out. Keep in mind I used "diff -r" because that means recursive, otherwise it wouldn't compare all files and subdirectories and would be a false way of doing it.........
  • Drupal 6.2 Install and how to move install to root/non-subdirectory


    drup 6.2 install $cd drupgoodinst3883/ [ drupgoodinst3883]$ ls CHANGELOG.txt  cron.php  index.php          INSTALL.pgsql.txt  INSTALL.txt  MAINTAINERS.txt  modules   robots.txt  sites   update.php   xmlrpc.php COPYRIGHT.txt  includes  INSTALL.mysql.txt  install.php        LICENSE.txt  misc  &........
  • ls: error while loading shared libraries: libtermcap.so.2: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory solution


    ls ls: error while loading shared libraries: libtermcap.so.2: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory This is not an ldd problem or case of anything missing, this only happened after I upraded Ubuntu. declare -x PATH="/home/user/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/games" "/home/user/bin" is the problem!  It's weird because I have no idea how it happened.........
  • Thunderbird/MBOX to IMAP/Maildir migration done easy with mb2md


    Convert MBOX Mail files into Maildir using Linux *You need perl an the TimeDate module Get the free Perl script mb2md from the project/author's site: wget http://batleth.sapienti-sat.org/projects/mb2md/mb2md-3.20.pl.gz gunzip mb2md-3.20.pl.gz #remember you need timedate or you'll get this error: ./mb2md-3.20.pl Can't locate........
  • sshd[9217]: Authentication refused: bad ownership or modes for file /root/.ssh/authorized_keys


    sshd[9217]: Authentication refused: bad ownership or modes for file /root/.ssh/authorized_keys  I made sure the entire .ssh subdir is owned by the user root (this is root's account); chown -R root.root .ssh chmod 600 .ssh/authorized_keys but it still doesn't work and gives me the same message sshd[7339]: Authentication refused: bad ownership or modes for directory /root chmod 700 /root........
  • rsync and cp doesn't/won't include .hidden files


    I was shocked that options like preserve and archive made no difference!  This is a big deal and will catch people off guard. Rsync include hidden files Solution: You need to use something like: rsync -Pha /source/dir/. /dest/dir *Notice the "." at the end of the source directory. cp -a still ignores them too, the solution is the same: cp -a /source/directory/. /destination........
  • Apache Forbidden You don't have permission to access / on this server.


    Forbidden You don't have permission to access / on this server. [Sun Jan 23 15:28:12 2011] [crit] [client 96.44.31.12] (13)Permission denied: /www/vhosts/domain.com/httpdocs/.htaccess pcfg_openfile: unable to check htaccess file, ensure it is readable   Solution I've done a chmod 755 .htaccess and index.php and restarted Apache That wasn't the only issue, the issue was the httpdocs direc........
  • named/bind cannot find zone file, load zone files without specifying full directory path/loading master file genuine.com.zone: file not found


    genuine.com/IN: loading master file genuine.com.zone: file not found _default/genuine.com/IN: file not found I always found it silly that no one really talks about this and apparently many like me and even control panels like Plesk were still using hard paths.  I always thought "why can't I just specify the name of the zone file and have bind find it".  Surely the default search path must be /var/named or somewhere else but there is no such thing.........
  • tar how to include hidden files such as .htaccess when it doesn't automatically


    tar include hidden files such as .htaccess just add . to the path eg. tar -czvf tarfile.tar.gz /home/directory/.........
  • php won't work with absolute links


    php won't work with absolute links Warning: imagecreatefromgif(/images/header.gif): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /vhostsdir/httpdocs/images.php on line 15 That is how my path is structured and ONLY likes the true full path as /vhostsdir/httpdocs/images/header.gif Why can't it work relative to the vhost directory with absolute links just like say an html link would.........
  • Failed to save enabled features : The Suexec command on your system is configured to only run scripts under /var/www, but the Virtualmin base directory is /home. CGI and PHP scripts run as domain owners will not be executed.


    Apache/httpd Failed to save enabled features : The Suexec command on your system is configured to only run scripts under /var/www, but the Virtualmin base directory is /home. CGI and PHP scripts run as domain owners will not be executed. This is because I never edited the Apache Config and Virtualmin config to reflect my new/current updated structure.........
  • Installing Webmin & Enabling SSL


    Webmin Setup Centos 5: wget http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/webadmin/webmin/1.530/webmin-1.530-1.noarch.rpm?r=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.webmin.com%2Fstandard.html&ts=1294339690&use_mirror=surfnet [1] 24229 [2] 24230 [root@host ~]# --2011-01-06 21:48:20--  http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/webadmin/webmin/1.530/webmin-1.530-1.noarch.rpm?r=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.webmin.com%2Fstandard.html Resolving downloads.sourceforge.net... 216.34.181.........
  • Cygwin and crontab backups via ssh/scp/rsync


    Install the "Editors" and "Net" groups that will give you rsync, ssh, ssh-keygen and cron. The trickiest thing that I keep forgetting about each time is you have to run "cron-config" which adds the cron service to Windows, and without doing that obviously no cron jobs will be run thus making automatic backups impossible. Warning about rsync/cygwin and using the -a archive switch. It's a good thing I caught this because it doesn't work ri........
  • How to see what's inside your gziped CPIO'd initrd image


    Copy the initrd to somewhere else, say /tmp: mv initrd.img to initrd.gz *the mv to .gz is needed otherwise gunzip won't work/it will refuse to operate without the correct .gz extension gunzip initrd.gz cat initrd | cpio -idmv The last command extracts the contents of initrd to your present working directory. For 7z .lz initrd........
  • vmare server - Cannot open the disk '/mnt/sda4/vmware/Debian/hdd.vmdk' or one of the snapshot disks it depends on. Reason: Failed to lock the file.


    Go into the directory for your Virtual Machine and delete all ".lck" directories. rm -rf *.lck After that your server should boot.........
  • Ubuntu/Debian DRBD 8.0 Setup Guide


    I've only used it on Centos, so I thought I'd make a quick Debian guide: Install the DRBD Package apt-get install drbd8-utils Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree       Reading state information... Done The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required:   libswfdec-0.8-0 Use 'apt-get autoremove' to remove them. The following........
  • vzquota : (warning) Incorrect quota shutdown for id 2333, recalculating disk usage vzquota : (error) quota check : lstat `sess_a5078fce5f569e453ab1fb39b0fc69f8': No such file or directory vzquota on failed [1]


    first container would not come up: Starting CT 2333: service vz stop OpenVZ is locked                                           [FAILED] 2010-11-29T23:26:23-0800 vzctl : CT 2333 : Starting container ... 2010-11-29T23:37:21-08........
  • PHP Email Attachment Corrupt Solution


    I couldn't figure out why this wouldn't work, a test script in the root of my htdocs folder worked fine. Within some subdirectories the same code would produce different base64 results but I didn't know hwy. Archive:  /tmp/archive.zip Zip file size: 6888 bytes, number of entries: 92 error [/tmp/archive.zip]:  missing 242827681 bytes in zipfile   (attempting to process anyway) error [/tmp/archive.zip]:  attempt........
  • Wine stopped working/won't work Solution


    After an upgrade wine wouldn't open anything, not even the pre-installed notepad. There are no wine logs and nothing is mentioned in any standard log file about why. I finally decided to run wine from the shell and see what's going on: wine client error:0: version mismatch 398/402. Your wineserver binary was not upgraded correctly, or you have an older one somewhere in your PATH. Or maybe the wrong wineserver is still running?........
  • [function.vB-Registry-include]: failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /www/vhosts/site.com/forums/includes/class_core.php on line 2394


    [function.vB-Registry-include]: failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /www/vhosts/site.com/forums/includes/class_core.php on line 2394 This happens on a new vBulletin install where you haven't created the config.php file.  Simply copy the config.php.new file into config.php and you'll be good to go.........
  • Solution - error while loading shared libraries: libgd.so.2: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory


    error while loading shared libraries: libgd.so.2: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory Solution Install gd: yum install gd After that whatever you are compliing should be happy.........
  • VirtualBox OSE/VBOX Can't Access Shared Folder Solution


    I shared a directory on my hostnode/local system (running Ubuntu 10.04) with my Guest system running Windows XP.  I have no idea why it's not mentioned or documented in an obvious way, but in the Windows client you just access it with "\Vboxsvr" Once you access that share you'll have access to all of the VBOX shares on your local host.  I think it should indicate it somewhere when you enable the sharing.  Yes, I'm sure it's buried so........
  • jailkit for chroot ssh account security tutorial and fix for error


    This was done on Centos but I think it's easier on Debian machines, the paths that it is set to use are tailored towards Debian, so there is some fiddling that needs to be done on Centos. This is for chrooting ssh, but jailkit has other uses than just SSH jails but I won't cover them in this writeup. 1. Install jailkit yum install jailkit 2. Setup Jail Home mkdir /home/jail chown root:root /home/ja........
  • Linux Burn MP3 CD On the Fly using


    I finally decided to look into some utils that did this, and the first one I found is "mp3burn".  It is unbelievable simple and perfect. *2017-11 update and mp3burn is still available in standard repos such as Ubuntu 14/16 so this is a current and working project. Just install the package and it gets all required libraries to convert and then burn's on the fly.  And you won't believe how simple it is. I just want to a directory that had the MP3's I wanted t........
  • FUSE/Curlftpfs mount ftp account as drive partition in Linux


    This is a great way to use your ftp server space, for example on your web hosting account (although I believe many hosts don't allow storage like this), but if you have a VPS/Dedicated Server etc.., this would be perfect.  Imagine how easy it is to work with an ftp account that you can just mount as a normal partition or directory in Linux, it would be great for backups etc..   Name curlftpfs - mount a ftp host as a local directory Synopsis........
  • How To Set DHCP/Static IP Address in Centos/RHEL/Fedora & Debian/Ubuntu/Kubuntu/MEPIS Set DHCP/Static IP Address


    Basically the two main types of distros are Debian and RHEL/Centos based.  I'm just going to give a quick overview of how the configuration of IP interfaces works in Debian/Centos based distros. *Just one thing to remember, when setting IPs statically you have to manually specify a DNS server in /etc/resolv.conf (since DHCP is what normally does it automatically) Debian/Ubuntu/Kubuntu/MEPIS The IP (DHCP &........
  • Debian 5.04 RAID 1 mdadm boot problem GRUB error


    I successfully created a single RAID 1 partition which includes /boot inside it and my root directory through the Debian installer.  It said GRUB installed successfully but when I try booting the OS it seems GRUB can't read anything. When trying to boot from GRUB GRUB Loading stage 1.5. GRUB loading, please wait... Error 2 I get "Error 2" when trying to boot Debian.  I also notice from a LiveCD that........
  • Centos 5.5 RAID 1 boot issue


    I installed 5.5 with a 300GB RAID 1 partition (boot is also on this partition).  It booted up fine the first few times until after I used a Live CD and accessed the array, and it became named /dev/md127 for some reason. Now whenI boot into CentOS I get a kernel panic and different errors, once I got "invalid superblock", even though the array is fine (it didn't happen again, probably because I was sure to dismount and stop the mdadm array properly). Here's what........
  • Canel Default VHOST DocumentRoot/Contents Directory is /usr/local/apache/htdocs


    This can be very annoying and CPanel doesn't seem to document it, or it's not found or made as obvious as it should be.  It's always funny when I find it more difficult to work with a control panel than to do everytihng manually without CPanel or even Plesk. So once again, the default serve path for contents is: /usr/local/apache/htdocs and this is especially applicable when accessing Apache by just an IP which is unbound to any domain at this point.........
  • Linux EXT3 16GB-17GB maximum filesize issue solved/how to fix


    I have no idea why but mkfs.ext3 defaults to a patheticlly small blocksize of 1024 bytes/1KB (kilobyte).  That means the maximum filesize is ONLY 16GB!  With 2KB/2048 bytes you get a 256 GB maximum filesize, and with 4KB/4096 bytes you get 2TB! I finally noticed/paid attention to this after realizing that with rsync and scp that no file larger than 17GB could be transferred.  I then realized it must be a file size limit on the partition. Here is what tune2fs tol........
  • email2fax and Asterisk to do eFaxing


    It's basically free bash shell script available from: http://wpkg.org/email2fax/index.php/Main_Page Make sure you have the required tools: libtiff ghostscript mpack/munpack Where you can e-mail your Asterisk box and it will fax it to the phone number in the subject line.  The good news ends there, it is fairly undocumented and buggy. Take for example how the documentation mentions you can invoke from the com........
  • tar gzip: stdout: File too large - Error Size Limit on Large file > 17GB


    The folder I was trying to archive is about 72GB, but much like rsync at about 17GB it chokes because of the filesize.  What's with so many common and essential Linux tools having such limitations?  I guess it is likely that the authors never wrote their code with the idea that files would be so large but it's still very annoying.  It's important to stay on top of these limitations on production servers because I didn't realize what happened until I checked the file with "........
  • Picking an FTPD (vsftpd) Server in Linux Centos/Debian


    I decided on using yum to help me decide even though I normaly use proftpd I decided to see what else I could find. yum search ftp Loaded plugins: fastestmirror Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile  * rpmforge: ftp-stud.fht-esslingen.de  * base: mirrors.netdna.com  * updates: updates.interworx.info  * addons: yum.singlehop.com  * extras: mirrors.netdna.com rpmforge   ........
  • Fix/Solution for apt-get error: " E: Archive directory /var/cache/apt/archives/partial is missing."


    I thought I was being smart, I wanted to download some Debian packages so I went to /var/cache/apt/archives and did "rm -rf *" but then I couldn't use apt-get anymore.  I kept getting this error: E: Archive directory /var/cache/apt/archives/partial is missing. E: The list of sources could not be read. The solution was to recreate the "partial" directory inside /var/cache/apt/archives and then everything will be fine.........
  • PHP cannot access /usr/bin/openssl


    PHP cannot access /usr/bin/opensslI have verified the username that runs the process is able to access /usr/bin/openssl and it does exist but the PHP script is saying it doesn't exist: [code:1:1fd0f3abbe] if (!file_exists($OPENSSL)) { //echo "ERROR: OPENSSL $OPENSSL not foundn"; }[/code:1:1fd0f3abbe] I don't get itI can clearly see the contents of /usr/bin by using the PHP system fu........
  • SSH automatic login without password


    SSH automatic login without passwordlocal> ssh-keygen -t rsa -f .ssh/id_rsa -t is the encryption type -f tells where to store the public/private key pairs. In this case, the .ssh directory on home is being used A password will be asked; leave this part blank, just pressing <enter> Now, go the .ssh directory, and you will find two new files: id_dsa and id_dsa.pub. The last one is the public part. Now, copy the public key to the serv........
  • Asterisk FreeBSD compile problems


    Asterisk FreeBSD compile problemsI couldn't get it to compile without using the following options at compile time: [b:b7d672ee28] make install WITHOUT_ZAPTEL=YES WITHOUT_MYSQL=YES WITHOUT_FAX=YES WITHOUT_ODBC=YES WITHOUT_H323=YES[/b:b7d672ee28]Some problems you might have with copying over your Linux config files to FreeBSD is different paths. [b:f044931f41]For example the etc path for Asterisk on BSD will now be:[/b:f044931f41] [qu........
  • How to extract files from RPM & SRPM files


    How to extract files from RPM & SRPM filesmkdir any_directory cd any_directory rpm2cpio /location/of/package.src.rpm | cpio -d -i This will extract all files, I find it especially useful if you want to manually compile the kernel source from the srpm........
  • Centos 4.3 x64 & VMWare Server Beta


    Centos 4.3 x64 & VMWare Server Beta[code:1:6d0b2c8c2f] The correct version of one or more libraries needed to run VMware Server may be missing. This is the output of ldd /usr/bin/vmware: linux-gate.so.1 => (0xffffe000) libm.so.6 => /lib/tls/libm.so.6 (0xf7fbd000) libdl.so.2 => /lib/libdl.so.2 (0xf7fb9000) libpthread.so.0 => /lib/tls/libpthread.so.0 (0xf7fa7000) libX11.so.6 => not f........
  • /usr/bin/ld: cannot open crt1.o: No such file or directory


    /usr/bin/ld: cannot open crt1.o: No such file or directory[quote:812bec9db7]/usr/bin/ld: cannot open crt1.o: No such file or directory collect2: ld returned 1 exit status[/quote:812bec9db7] This is annoying and in my case it happened on Centos AMD 64 when compiling a 32bit program with GCC. Install glibc-devel.i386 (make sure you get the i386 version and not the native 64 bit version which is likely already installed). The joys of 3........
  • Xorg fonts missing Xorg.0.log


    Xorg fonts missing Xorg.0.logThis happened on a PCBSD installation but it could happen on any Unix/Linux Xorg installation: If the text on your screen is too small and you're running at a high resolution if you do a [code:1:04ca0d3455]cat /var/log/Xorg.0.log | more [/code:1:04ca0d3455] You'll see a bunch of fonts missing, specifically the 75dpi and 100dpi ones that you really need :) (WW) The directory "/usr/X11........
  • Process/Parse PHP from HTML files using .htaccess and allowoverride


    RemoveHandler .html .htmAddType application/x-httpd-php .php .htm .html Just add the above into the .htaccess file for your website. Also remember that you need to be allowed to override the Apache and this should go into the vhost for your site as shown below: # you need the AllowOverride otherwise .htaccess directives will be ignored<Directory "/www/vhosts/complaintdb.com/httpdocs">Options FollowSymLinksAllowO........
  • GRUB "Error 2: Bad file or directory type" 0.97 won


    You can see the problem below, GRUB recognizes my hard drive and sees the partitions but cannot access them.  This is from the GRUB boot disc I'm using. What happened is that I had some power issues causing this system's power to be interrupted several times and basically an on/off on/off situation. The system won't boot, I just get a flashing cursor and no message or error from GRUB.  Obviously the problem is that my MBR seems corrupt or some other issue. My........
  • Timezone Change/Updated for Linux/Unix Debian/Fedora/Ubuntu/Centos Change Update Time zone


    This way should work on all Linux machines, at least RHEL/Debian (Ubuntu) based distros but most likely all and also should work on many Unix style machines I believe. Many OS's have tools to update the timezone, but most of them (even if command line) require several bloated packages and even Xorg/KDE based packages etc.. Your time zone info file is actually in /etc/localtime if you open this file in vi/vim/pico you'll see it's gibberish (binary code or another encodin........
  • Linux How to Search for text within any file using Linux/Unix - Use GREP


    It's actually very simple and "grep" makes it as easy as possible.  I'll outline a few common scenarios and provide some examples. Say you want to search ALL files within the current directory (and inside/deeper) for the text "phpinfo()" grep -R "phpinfo()" * If you want to search only certain files such as only .txt you would do this instead: grep -R "phpinfo()" *.txt As you ca........
  • Apache Ignoring/Not processing .htaccess file


    I was getting very frustrated one day wondering why it appeared my .htaccess file was being ignored and not processed by Apache.  No matter what I did it was obvious that Apache didn't care about my .htaccess file.  Then I realized that the default settings must be in effect, which is that my vhost didn't explicitly allow me to override the default settings. This usually comes down to your vhost settings. Make sure you have an entry like this in your Apache vhost settings in........
  • iPhone Create Silent/Free Custom Ringtone jailbroken/jailbreak iPhone


    As shown below you can find ringtones in the "/private/var/stash/Ringones*" directory of your iPhone. Different reports have said that the .m4r format is really an MP4 file and some have said AAC and some also say "it's the same as the M4A" format.  Whatever the case is, one easy way is to install the silent theme from Cydia and copy that into your ringtones directory.   /private/var/stash/Ringtones.sh7cLj root# ls Alarm.m4r ........
  • Using a Mac OSX DMG Image in Windows and Converting to Standard ISO Format use dmg2iso


    The dmg format is silly and annoying to work with, why couldn't Apple stick with the .iso standard?  Anyway, there's an excellent Linux and Windows based tool to convert it back to a normal .iso Image called dmg2iso I'll only cover the Linux version although the Windows pre-built binary works the same way. Download dmg2iso here for free (from the author's website) It's just silly and doesn't make sense that Ubuntu doe........
  • OCFS2 crash


    When trying to even cd or ls the mounted OCFS2 partition it crashes.  I think this is a combination of VMWare Server's problem and the way I mounted and symlinked to it. More than anything this shows the problem and lack of forsight with VMWare, but also that OCFS2 is easily crashed if you do strange things. Output of /var/log/messages for OCFS2   Apr 10 15:57:45 localhost kernel: [84331.691258] Modules linked in: vmnet vmci vmmon ocfs2_stac........
  • Viewing and Connecting to an SMB Samba Share on Windows/Linux/Unix


    This will give you the basic info needed to browse and connect to Samba shares from the command line.  From the GUI of Gnome or KDE etc, it is pretty standard and straight forward.  However, I've found very little guides on how to do it from the command line and if you're like me, a nerd who prefers command line for its simplicity and for remote use, this is the way to go. First get a list of all the Samba/SMB shares on the target. smbclient -L hostname........
  • Latest Articles

  • How Does Cisco CUCM (Cisco Unified Communication Manager) Work?
  • What DNS Options Does Active Directory Offer in Windows Server 2008,2012,2016 ?
  • syntax error, unexpected T_SL in PHP Solution
  • grep regular expression match number range between specific numbers
  • bash how to print out lines of text within a range from the first occurrence
  • bash script how to to check LAN computers for open ports
  • MySQL Using mytop Debug Source of High IO and Slow Performance
  • How To Mathematically Convert and Calculate Binary Value To Decimal Value
  • systemd management using systemctl and journalctl to check systemd logs
  • css how to format code in the code tag
  • css br with extra blank line
  • What is /dev/pts and why do we need it in Linux?
  • Linux What is umask (user mask) for file and directory creation permissions and how to calculate umask and change the defaults
  • Linux Permissions and Groups Real Usecase for Group Access
  • Centos 7 python34 how to install the gi library
  • Centos 7 - Convert Minimal to Graphical GUI GNOME or KDE Desktop
  • AMD Set Fan Speed and Other Powerplay Memory/CPU Timings with a Linux script
  • Ethereum Mining Claymore Nanopool Error
  • genisoimage errors with long filenames and deep directory structures
  • Linux Kernel USB Export Errors