• How to resize a pdf without losing much quality in Linux Mint Ubuntu Debian Redhat Solution


    Use gs or ghostscript as below, specify the output file and also the input file. In the example below the output file is "outputfile-resized.pdf" and the input file is "original-pdf.pdf". Change the input file to the name of your pdf gs -sDEVICE=pdfwrite -dCompatibilityLevel=1.4 -dPDFSETTINGS=/prepress -dNOPAUSE -dQUIET -dBATCH -sOutputFile=outputfile-resized.pdf original-pdf.pdf For........
  • Ubuntu Linux Mint Debian Redhat Youtube Cannot Play HD or 4K videos, dropped frames or high CPU usage with Nvidia or AMD Driver


    In a lot of distros, vdpau which accelerates video through the GPUis often not installed even in recent distros. This will result in Firefox with Youtube dropping frames when you check the "Stats for Nerds" and to the eye as jerky or slower video playback due to the dropped frames. Some sites will say that because you are watching VP09 that there is no GPU support, but with vdpau installed and enabled, many GPUs will still be able to use hardware decoding for 4K........
  • Debian Ubuntu 10/11/12 Linux how to get tftpd-hpa server setup tutorial


    apt install tftpd-hpa #change TFTP_ADDRESS to by setting address to 192.168.1.1:69 or the IP you need, otherwise it will listen on all IPs and interfaces which could be a security risk. # edit /etc/default/tftpd-hpa TFTP_USERNAME="tftp" TFTP_DIRECTORY="/srv/tftp" TFTP_ADDRESS="192.168.1.1:69" TFTP_OPTIONS="--secure"........
  • Linux Debian Mint Ubuntu Bridge br0 gets random IP


    This can break things easily in remove environments where it was normally easy to convert a normal eth0 to a bridge under br0, and that bridge would normally have the same MAC address by default, which is desirable for most situations. In Debian 11 this is different for some reason now. https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/681013/bridge-gets-random-mac-........
  • How to kill a docker swarm


    Assign way more replicas than you have of memory on all nodes and watch the Swarm crash which can easily reproduce in a small VMfor testing. root@Deb11Docker01:~# docker ps CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAM........
  • nvidia cannot resume from sleep Comm: nvidia-sleep.sh Tainted: Linux Ubuntu Mint Debian


    This seems to happen in many different drivers but it happened more often in newer versions such as 530 vs 525. Then nvidia-modeset goes to 100% There are many reports of this appearing since driver 4.70 and I can confirm I've seen this in various machines. https://forums.de........
  • [error] (28)No space left on device: Cannot create SSLMutex Apache Solution Linux CentOS Ubuntu Debian Mint


    Have you got this error from Apache? [notice] suEXEC mechanism enabled (wrapper: /usr/sbin/suexec) [error] (28)No space left on device: Cannot create SSLMutex At first glance it appears that you may be out of disk space but the issue is ipc or interprocess communication. This will clear out the ipcs processes so things can work, this often happens during high traffic and may be a sign of DDOS. The command below will fix it, it will list al........
  • Save money on bandwidth by disabling reflective rpc queries in Linux CentOS RHEL Ubuntu Debian


    Even today we see a lot of servers that have different services and ports open for rpc and this creates not only potential inward vulnerabilities but perhaps more common, the abuse of your network resources in reflective rpc queries. To stop this problem, you should disable and remove all services relating to rpc or at least block all relevant ports for the service. Surprisingly, there are still some providers and OS installs in Linux that install these services and leave them........
  • Linux custom kernel is huge solution


    You may have been expecting a normal sized kernel but if you don't disable these .config options you may have a kernel that is several gigabytes. CONFIG_SLUB_DEBUG=no CONFIG_DEBUG_INFO=no CONFIG_DEBUG_MISC=no Rebuild and you should find that the kernel is the normal and as expected size.........
  • Install Grafana on Linux Debian Ubuntu Tutorial Guide


    First we need a few extra packages: apt update apt install -y adduser libfontconfig1 musl sudo wget https://dl.grafana.com/enterprise/release/grafana-enterprise_10.3.1_amd64.deb Install / Enable Grafana dpkg -i grafana-enterprise_10.3.1_amd64.deb dpkg -i grafana-enterprise_10.3.1_amd64.deb (Reading database ... 44309 files and directories currently installed.) Preparin........
  • How To Completely Disable ufw in Linux Ubuntu Mint Debian


    This is for the situation that you're doing other things that may conflict or have your own custom rules and ufw keeps overriding iptables. A lot of guides don't work, and even ufw reset does not work, because it still leaves the old ufw chains. Here is what works to disable ufw completely systemctl stop ufw systemctl disable ufw ufw disable rm -f /et........
  • System has not been booted with systemd as init system (PID 1). Can't operate. Failed to talk to init daemon. Ubuntu Debian Linux Solution Cannot reboot


    You are probably using some custom image or maybe this is some sort of container that didn't boot with systemd. The solution is to use "reboot -f" reboot -f This will force the system/OS/VM/container to reboot.........
  • configure.ac:75: error: possibly undefined macro: AC_PROG_LIBTOOL If this token and others are legitimate, please use m4_pattern_allow. See the Autoconf documentation. solution


    configure.ac:75: error: possibly undefined macro: AC_PROG_LIBTOOL If this token and others are legitimate, please use m4_pattern_allow. See the Autoconf documentation. autoreconf: /usr/bin/autoconf failed with exit status: 1 make: *** [/software/pixman/configure] Error 1 make: *** Deleting file `/software/pixman/configure' yum install libtool........
  • Can't exec "aclocal": No such file or directory at /usr/share/autoconf/Autom4te/FileUtils.pm line 326. autoreconf: failed to run aclocal: No such file or directory solution


    autoreconf: Entering directory `.' autoreconf: configure.ac: not using Gettext autoreconf: running: aclocal --output=aclocal.m4t Can't exec "aclocal": No such file or directory at /usr/share/autoconf/Autom4te/FileUtils.pm line 326. autoreconf: failed to run aclocal: No such file or directory make: *** [/software/pixman/configure] Error 1 Just install automake: yum install automake........
  • /bin/sh: autoreconf: command not found solution


    This means the autoconf package is not installed, so we'll install it: /bin/sh: autoreconf: command not found yum install autoconf On Debian apt install autoconf........
  • glib-2.0 required to compile QEMU solution


    ./configure glib-2.0 required to compile QEMU yum install glib2 glib2-devel or on Debian/Ubuntu based: apt install libglib2 libglib2-dev........
  • How To Upgrade Debian 8,9,10 to Debian 12 Bookworm


    Step 1.) Upgrade to Debian 11 first The process to go to Debian 12 is not as smooth as 11, when trying to upgrade from Debian 10. In fact, it doesn't work directly, so you'll first need to follow this guide to update to Debian 11, reboot and come back here if successful. Step 2.) Update sources.list Update your /etc/apt/sources.list like this: deb http://........
  • Linux dhcp dhclient Mint Redhat Ubuntu Debian How To Use Local Domain DNS Server Instead of ISPs


    If you are running a local DNS server like named/bind and don't want to use the ISPsupplied DNS servers that are announced via a DHCP request (using dhclient) then the solution is simple. The reason should be obvious, but normally running your own DNS server will provide a more reliable, and fast DNS response and you won't have to worry about filtering as much (unless your upstream filters or proxies outgoing DNS requests). Edit /etc/dhcp/dhclient.conf........
  • Docker dockerd swarm high CPU usage cause solution


    If you have swarm services and dockerd is creating a high load even with the containers just being idle, the easiest solution is to upgrade to a newer docker version. For example an identical config of 3 nodes, with Redis 5 with 30 replicas produces a load of about 1.45 in Debian 10 with Docker18.09.1 If I create the same setup on Debian 11, with Docker 20.10.5+dfsg1 then the CPU usage is low. One other difference I wondered is the kernel. In my test setup........
  • Docker Minimum Requirements/How Efficient is Docker? How Much Memory Does Dockerd Use?


    We used a simple Debian 10 VM and showed the memory before starting docker and with no docker containers being started. The goal is to show much much memory dockerd actually uses. Before docker was started The VMwas using 58M of RAM. After docker was started it was using 99MB of RAM. How much RAM does docker use? It's not scientific but fair to say dockerd itself uses about 41MB of RAM (99-58).........
  • apache2 httpd apache server will not start [pid 22449:tid 139972160445760] AH00052: child pid 23248 exit signal Aborted (6) solution Mint Debian Ubuntu Redhat


    If you get this error, it is often because you have configured Apache with modules that weren't actually installed. Eg. you try to load the PHPmodule but didn't actually install the apache2 php module, so the server can't start. In general, this error can often be caused by issues with problematic modules and/or Apache being configured for modules that have not actually be installed (eg. libapache2-mod-php) is missing. The above results in this less than obv........
  • How to use the FTDI USB serial cable to RJ45 adapter to connect to the console on Cisco/Juniper Switch Router Firewall in Linux Ubuntu Debian Redhat


    This should work for most console ports of other manufacturers too. It is a quick and simple method for emegencies or deploying a few appliances/devices in a non-standard environment or small environment. However, if this is a route thing, or the equipment is not physically close to you, it would be best to use some sort of "Terminal" server which is an IP connected switch with several serial ports built-in for this purpose. Normally they accessible by web/........
  • How To Setup Python3 in Ubuntu Docker Image for AI Deep Learning


    The issue is that Docker images are stripped down, so many tools and even python3 is missing, so you'll have to build or update the actual image yourself. I assume you have started an image with something like this and that you have the Nvidia Toolkit installed (assuming you are using GPUs). If you're not using nvidia just remove --runtime=nvidia --gpus all. docker run -it --runtime=nvidia --gpus all ubuntu bash These works for most images li........
  • How to Configure NVIDIA GPUs with Docker on Ubuntu: A Comprehensive Guide for AI Deep Learning CUDA Solution


    Welcome to our in-depth guide on configuring NVIDIA GPUs with Docker on Ubuntu. This post is tailored for developers, data scientists, and IT professionals who are looking to leverage the power of NVIDIA's GPU acceleration within Docker containers. Whether you're working on machine lea........
  • Linux How To Access Original Contents of Directory Mounted Debian Mint CentOS Redhat Solution


    Let's say you have a directory /mnt/raid which has files and directories inside it, but nothing is mounted to it. Then you mount a block device such as /dev/sdh to /mnt/raid Even though /mnt/raid has files and directories there, you can only see the mounted contents of /mnt/raid. How do we access the original contents? Just do a bind mount of the root filesystem to another location. mkdir /bindmount mount --bind / /b........
  • Linux How To Upgrade To The Latest Kernel Debian Mint Ubuntu


    How to check what kernel version you have/currently running? uname -rm 5.4.0-91-generic x86_64 The above shows us that we are running 5.4.0-91-generic on the x86_64 architecture. The safest way is to stick with the same flavor eg if you're on generic, and say on kernel 5.4.0 then it makes sense to follow what is below. However, if you are migrating or dual booting between newer hardware (eg. you got a........
  • Linux How To echo as root solution to use tee permission denied solution Ubuntu Debian Mint Redhat CentOS


    The issue is when you need to echo something as root/sudo, that it doesn't work. You can never do a sudo echo to an output file as you'd expect. Take an example to clear out wasted RAM buffers/cache like this: sudo echo 1 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches -bash: /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches: Permission denied The solution is to run tee as sudo/root What we do is echo 1, but then pipe it to the "tee" command as sudo........
  • How To Add Multiple SSH Keys Ubuntu Mint Linux Debian Redhat


    By default if you create a private key for SSH, it will create something like .ssh/id_rsa Linux will always search for and offer this key when connecting to servers. If you put extra keys in your .ssh directory like id_rsa_realtechtalk.com, they will be ignored by default and NOT used or offered (you can verify this with ssh -v) and see it is not being offered. Here is how you add the extra SSH keys so they are all offered: #this gives........
  • ecryptfs how to change default mount location from Private Ubuntu Debian Centos How


    In a lot of distros like Debian, ecryptfs will mount itself in /home/yourusername/Private This is controlled by Private.mnt which may contain the mount path like this: /home/yourusername/Private Change the default mount location of ecryptfs by modifying this file: home/.ecryptfs/yourusername/.ecryptfs/Private.mnt After you unmount and relogin, you should find ecryptfs is now mo........
  • How to upgrade to the latest Python version on Linux Ubuntu Debian Mint 3.11


    A lot of developers want to go to 3.11 because of the speed improvements, but most distros never have the latest Python version. Using the deadsnakes third party repo is the easiest way aside from compiling it yourself (which is safer and recommended): Step 1 - Add the repo apt-add-repository ppa:deadsnakes/ppa If you get an error about requests then install it:........
  • add bridge failed: Package not installed Linux Bridge Not working Ubuntu Mint Debian solution


    If you get this error in your logs: add bridge failed: Package not installed This error normally means one of two things. 1.) Is your brctl (bridge-utils) installed? On Mint/Debian check for "brctl". If it's not there do sudo apt install bridge-utils uml-utilities 2.) Is your bridge.ko (bridge kernel module loaded?). On some installs I have seen that you cannot modpro........
  • -bash: expr: command not found Linux Debian Mint Ubuntu


    If you get this error, it's usually because you don't have coreutils installed. -bash: expr: command not found Install coreutils and you'll be good: apt-get -y install coreutils........
  • How to install and configure haproxy on Linux Ubuntu Debian


    haproxy is one of the best known and widely used Open Source load balancers out there and a strong competitor to nginx. haproxy is used by many large sites per Wikipedia: HAProxy is used by a number of high-profile websites including GoDaddy, GitHub,........
  • talib/_ta_lib.c:747:10: fatal error: ta-lib/ta_defs.h: No such file or directory


    If you are installing ta-lib for Python and get this error then you can normally solve it by manually getting the ta-lib source files and compiling. tar -zxvf ta-lib-0.4.0-src.tar.gz cd ta-lib;./configure;make;make install Collecting ta-lib Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/39/6f/6acaee2eac6afb2cc6a2adcb294080577f9983fbd2726395b9047c4e13ec/TA-Lib-0.4.26.tar.gz (272kB) &nbs........
  • vagrant install on Debian Mint Ubuntu Linux RHEL Quick Setup Guide Tutorial


    1 - Install Vagrant apt install vagrant Make sure you have a supported Virtualization tool like Virtualbox or VMWare, Hyper-V etc.. It automatically detects and uses what you have. Virtualbox has a lot of support here with tons of images. 2 - Init Vagrant We'll init to have a Debian 10 box by default to show how quick and easy it is. vagrant init generic/debian10........
  • RHEL 8 CentOS 8, Alma Linux 8, Rocky Linux 8 System Not Booting with RAID or on other servers/computers Solution for dracut and initramfs missing kernel modules


    This seems to have changed for RHEL 8 where a normal dracut to update your initramfs creates a system that only boots for the running kernel. For example if you have Kernel 5 and then chroot into a RHEL 8 variant which uses kernel 4.18, and run dracut, it seems that by default the system will be unbootable. It is also the case that if you move your RAID array or drives to another server that it will be unbootable, because dracut seems to only include modules needed for the curre........
  • How to Upgrade to Debian 11 from Version 8,9,10


    This likely works for even older versions but I have only tested on 8,9,10 (11,12). It's quite impressive at how easy it is to upgrade from a very old version to the new version. I would say that Debian version upgrades are some of the quickest and smoothest of any distro. 1.) Backup your /etc/apt/sources.list cp /etc/apt/sources.list ~ #Get your keys first, you need the latest keys for Debian 11 or it won't work:........
  • Ubuntu Linux Mint Debian Redhat Cannot View Files on Android iPhone USB File Transfer Not Working Solution


    If you plugin your phone to your computer and enable USB File Transfer/Allow on the phone side but the contents of your phone on the computer side are empty in the file manager, you probably don't have mtp-tools.MTP or media transfer protocol is the standard protocol that most phones use to communicate over USB to the computer. Just do this to fix it and get access to your files: apt install mtp-tools After that you should be a........
  • Virtualbox Best Networking Mode In Lab/Work Environment without using NAT Network or Bridged


    Virtualbox is a very powerful tool, but for some use cases it is less than optimal. Say you are in a work, lab or other environment where you are not alone on the physical network and there could be overlap of IPs, but you need all of your VMs to be contactable from your host, VMs need to communicate with each other, and VMs need internet. NAT Network will give you VM to VM communication and internet, however, it is buggy and unstable. It also doesn't allow host to VM co........
  • debootstrap how to install Ubuntu, Mint, Debian install


    In this example we install debian 10 with --variant=minbase which gives us a minimal/tiny install. Don't use variant if you want the full size install. mkdir /tmp/deb10files debootstrap --variant=minbase buster /tmp/deb10files/ Did you get an error? debootstrap --variant=minbase buster /home/theuser/VMs/deb10files/ You'll get this error if you make a directory in your home........
  • How To Restore Partition Table on Running Linux Mint Ubuntu Debian Machine


    Here is an easy way to restore things if you have the starting point and size of each partition using fdisk: In this example we pretend that /dev/sda was wiped out, but the running system still has the info in /sys/class/block/sda Go into each partition and record the "start" and "size" hostdev@box /sys/class/block/sda/sda1 $ cat start 2048 hostdev@box /sys/class/block/sda/sd........
  • Debian Ubuntu apt install stop daemon questions/accept the default action without prompting


    This can be a real pain when automating things and you do an apt install and some packages ask a lot of questions. Make sure you set this variable when running: DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive Remember as well that if chrooting you will want to run like this: DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive apt install -y yourpackagename ........
  • iptables NAT how to enable PPTP in newer Debian/Ubuntu/Mint Kernels Linux


    Remember that control connections are established on port 1723 and then actual data is transferred over GRE protocol 47. If you have a NAT setup this will work without special forwarding or accepting of GRE packets (normally if you are not blocking outgoing connections and accepting established and related connections). The below two commands will get things going so PPTP and GRE work We first load the ip_nat_pptp module which allows PPTP to work with........
  • Linux How to Check Which NIC is Onboard eth0 or eth1 Ubuntu Centos Debian Mint


    So say you happen to have 2 NICs of the exact same chipset, they will generally show up as the same name, with possibly a different revision in lspci. Normally this is not an issue if you have a server with 4 NICs, generally the eth0 to eth3 appears from left to the right (or right to left on some vendors) so it doesn't take much figuring out. Generally if you have different chipsets for different NICs, it should be easy to know which one is eth0 or the first NIC in the OS.........
  • Stop ls in Linux Debian Mint CentOS Ubuntu from applying quotes around filenames and directory names


    Later versions of ls try to be helpful and smart to prevent errors in dealing with files with spaces that were tradtionally a pain. However if you need the raw/real filenames, this can break scripts or if you are pasting into a csv etc.... How do you make ls not add the quotes? Add the capital "-N" switch ls -N You could also add an alias to make it more permanent Do this to add it to ~/........
  • Ubuntu Debian Mint Linux How To Update Initramfs Manually update-initramfs


    The easiest way for the current running kernel is: update-initramfs -u -k `uname -r` You could change -k to a specific kernel name if for some reason the current is not running (eg. if you are chrooted or in recovery mode). If you want to update all kernels then use "-k all" update-initramfs -k all -u update-initramfs: Generating /boot/initrd.img-5.4.0-162-generic........
  • Enable Turbo Mode for CPU Ubuntu Linux Mint Debian Redhat


    Sometimes due to your BIOS/EFI you may find that you have chosen "Energy Efficient" for your CPU which may effectively disable turbo mode. This is because "Energy Efficient" will often restrict or throttle your CPU to the base speed. This can impact nearly any CPU such as Intel's, AMDs, Opteron, Xeon etc... This is of course frustrating, for example if you have a CPU that is 2.0GHz base speed but turbo to 2.5GHz, you will never hit more than 2GHz.........
  • grub blank screen how to manually boot kernel and initrd Linux Ubuntu Debian Centos won't boot solution


    You probably didn't do an "update-grub" and grub no longer has any proper menu entries, but before you can fix it let's try to get grub booting anyway. If you get this lovely black grub screen here's how you can get things booting. In my case I have a gpt partition with partition 1 and 2. Partion 1 is just my EFI / ESPand partion 2 /dev/sda2 is my root which includes /boot. You will have to adjust this if you had a separate /boot partition.........
  • How To Install convert MBR Legacy booting GRUB to EFI from a non-EFI Linux Environment Ubuntu Mint Debian


    1.) Create your EFI/ESP Partition If you happen to have some free space on the drive already then this is easy, just create a new partition of at least 100M. The nice thing about the EFI spec is that it must just be in the first 2.2TB of space so for most users, it means you can simply resize the last partition(downsize it by 100M) and then add an EFI partition at the end. For example if you had this partition scheme: /dev/sda1 = /........
  • How to find out which package a file belongs to in Debian Mint Ubuntu Linux


    To find which package a file is from just pass it the path to the file in question, whether it's a config file or binary, you'll find your answer (assuming it does belong to a package of course). Just use dpkg -S /path/to/yourfile How To Find Which Package The File Belongs To in Debian Mint Ubuntu Linux eg. dpkg -S /usr/bin/xed xed: /usr/bin/xed dpkg -S /etc/pam.conf libpam-runtime........
  • Loaded: masked (Reason: Unit hostapd.service is masked.) Solution in Linux Debian Mint Ubuntu


    If you are getting this error from systemctl "Loaded: masked (Reason: Unit hostapd.service is masked.)" we need to unmask the service. Solution systemctl unmask hostapd Removed /etc/systemd/system/hostapd.service. It's fixed root@routerOS:/var/log# systemctl start hostapd root@routerOS:/var/log# systemctl status hostapd ● hostapd.service - Access point and authentication server for Wi-Fi and Ethern........
  • Linux Mint Ubuntu Ubiquity Installer Bug EFI Installed To Wrong Partition Solution


    Just an FYI that the installer ignores your selection of Boot Loader, as it was intended for MBR/Legacy. The installer horribly, even when choosing "Something Else" and manually partitioning and creating an EFIin your install drive, will still install grub to the first EFI partition it finds, even if you are following a guide like this to avoid wiping out the M........
  • ecryptfs How To Backup / Migrate Linux Mint Ubuntu Debian system ecryptfs properly and restore access


    In this scenario, let's say you want to clone your OS at the filesystem level and the source system (the system you want to clone from) is in use. Doing a blind rsync / is a big problem because it uses twice as much space for no reason. The reason for this is that with ecryptfs you have a /home/.ecryptfs directory which has the actual encrypted versions of your files and folders. However your home directory (eg. /home/someuser) is mounted. Doing the blind rsync will ca........
  • br0: received packet on bond0 with own address as source address Linux Solution Mint Debian Redhat CentOS bridge bridging


    A quick fix is to run this command: sudo brctl setageing br0 0 This causes the aging of the MAC address to time out immediately or in 0 seconds, which delete the entry frmo the FDB (Forwarding Database) and causes the error to go away. The default time is 300 seconds or 5 minutes. You can also add it under your br0 definition like this in /etc/network/interfaces to make it permanent and automatic: auto br........
  • Debian Mint Ubuntu Howto Disable Network Manager


    NetworkManager is normally good for GUI users who may not be good with manually confguring devices, but if you are using things like bridging and bonding, it will often break things. How To Disable NetworkManager systemctl disable NetworkManager Now that it's disabled you will need to stop NetworkManager. NetworkManager will still be running until you reboot next or manually stop it. How To Stop NetworkManager systemctl stop........
  • symbol 'grub_calloc' not found grub boot error solution / fix


    I've encountered this after upgrading some Debian/Ubuntu/Mint based systems for no explicable reason, although there are some bug trackers on Ubuntu that document this: https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/grub2/+bug/1889509 The short end of the solution is that you need to properly reinstall grub. 1.) Boot from a LiveCD 2.) Mount your root / filesystem and don't forget to mo........
  • /var/log/journal huge/too large solution in Debian Mint Ubuntu Linux Howot Fix


    Is your /var/log/journal overweight and bloated? For example a decent install of Debian 11 with most applications and services ends up being about 4.9G with the journal taking a few gigs. du -hs /var/log/journal/ 1.3G /var/log/journal/ By default in a lot of distributions there is no maximum size so it will keep growing. This is especially problematic for embedded distributions and devices, but is also a huge waste of sp........
  • RTL8821AU Setup Configure Wifi Realtek 8821 in Linux Debian Mint Ubuntu Howto


    The easiest way for the 8821AU Realtek Wifi chipset / TP-Link T2U Plus: Bus 002 Device 003: ID 2357:0120 TP-Link Archer T2U PLUS [RTL8821AU] First install your kernel headers/source/other required tools: sudo apt install linux-headers-`uname -r` make gcc bc Clone this github repo with the driver: git clone https://github.com/morrownr/8821au-20210708 Run the compile/ins........
  • How To Tell Which Repository a Package Comes From Debian Mint Ubuntu


    Just use apt-cache policy to find the repo of a package: apt-cache policy lxd lxd: Installed: 3.0.3-0ubuntu1~18.04.2 Candidate: 3.0.3-0ubuntu1~18.04.2 Version table: *** 3.0.3-0ubuntu1~18.04.2 500 500 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/main amd64 Packages &nb........
  • How To Reload All Kernel Modules And List Required Moduels for Each Device - Linux Mint Debian Ubuntu Troubleshooting


    One easy way is to use lspci -k like this: sudo lspci -k|grep modules|sort -nr|uniq Kernel modules: snd_hda_intel Kernel modules: shpchp Kernel modules: pata_acpi Kernel modules: nvidiafb, nouveau, nvidia_drm, nvidia Kernel modules: mei_me Kernel modules: lpc_ich Kernel module........
  • Debian Ubuntu Mint How To Change Default Display Manager


    The display manager is more so what controls the main graphical login process after Debian/Mint/Ubuntu boot and controls the graphical login sequence. Once you login, you are then usually passed to an Xorg based Window manager like XFCE, Mate, Ubuntu etc... Popular display managers are mdm, gdm, lightdm etc... and they all basically do the same thing with a different interface/style and some feature differences. In Mint for example the normal default display manager is l........
  • Ubuntu Mint Debian Howto Execute Command / Script / Program Upon Wakeup From Sleep


    Sometimes manual intervention on various Linux system's, including Debian, is required to fix things after waking up from sleep. One persistent issue is the sound system / pulseaudio needing to be reset and not working until you do that after waking up. It's not clear if it's an OS issue itself or the sound driver, but this will fix things. Where do we put scripts or commands that need to be used upon wakeup automatically? /lib/systemd/syst........
  • Linux Debian Mint Ubuntu How To Add Non-Free Repositories and Contrib


    You just add on "non-free" at the end of each repo, like the example below: If you wanted contributed packages then you could also add "non-free contrib" to each repo line. Don't forget to do an "apt update" to see the new packages, this is especially handy for getting more drivers for devices with the firmware-linux-nonfr........
  • Debian Ubuntu Mint DHCP dhclient quits and how to make it persistent if first attempt to get DHCP lease fails


    Debian based OS's have a similar issue as the behavior in RHEL/CentOS dhclient, which is that if you have an interface that relies on DHCP, if the first attempt fails, it will quit and stop. This is a problem especially if you are using your Linux as a router or something else mission critical, but where the internet for some reason may have been down or the DHCP server it gets a lease from broken. The expected behavior you would hope is that when things are back online that the........
  • LightDM Mint Ubuntu Debian won't start errors Nvidia Graphics


    This error implies that there may be an issue with Xorg or maybe your NVIDIA GPU cannot start or initialize: 35 laptop kernel: [ 2031.857704] nvidia: loading out-of-tree module taints kernel. 35 laptop kernel: [ 2031.857724] nvidia: module license 'NVIDIA' taints kernel. 35 laptop kernel: [ 2031.857725] Disabling lock debugging due to kernel taint 35 laptop kernel: [ 2031.873280] nvidia: module verification failed: signature a........
  • WARNING: Unable to determine the path to install the libglvnd EGL vendor library config files. Check that you have pkg-config and the libglvnd development libraries installed, or specify a path with --glvnd-egl-config-path. Linux Ubuntu Mint Debian E


    If you get an error like this when installing the Nvidia drivers: WARNING: Unable to determine the path to install the libglvnd EGL vendor library config files. Check that you have pkg-config and the libglvnd development libraries installed, or specify a path with --glvnd-egl-config-path. Just install these packages: &nbs........
  • How To Do Linux Network Bonding Teaming in Mint Debian Ubuntu


    Bonding is an excellent way to get both increased redundancy and throughput. It is similar to the "Network Teaming" feature in Windows. There are a few different modes but we will use mode 6, I think it's the best of both worlds, as it is not just a failover, but it provides round robin, so you will get redundancy and load balancing. So if you have a 1G single port, you will have a combined throughput of 4G at this point. Just bear in mind that the true thr........
  • LXC Containers LXD How to Install and Configure Tutorial Ubuntu Debian Mint


    If you are using mint, delete the preference that stops snap from installing (as it is required for lxc) sudo rm /etc/apt/preferences.d/nosnap.pref 1. Install lxd: sudo apt install lxd Issues install lxd or errors? Click here Debian at this time does not have lxd so you'll need to use snap: sudo apt in........
  • GlusterFS HowTo Tutorial For Distributed Storage in Docker, Kubernetes, LXC, KVM, Proxmox


    This can be used on almost anything, since Gluster is a userspace tool, based on FUSE. This means that all Gluster appears as to any application is just a directory. Applications don't need specific support for Gluster, so long as you can tell the application to use a certain directory for storage. One application can be for redundant and scaled storage, including for within Docker and Kubernetes, LXC, Proxmox, OpenStack, etc or just your image/web/video files or even da........
  • How To Enable Linux Swapfile Instead of Partition Ubuntu Mint Debian Centos


    This may be necessary if you have a VM or if for some reason you just want to be more efficient with your space and have the flexibility of changing your swap space at will. What we mean is the ability to use a "swap file" or similar to the Windows "pagefile" that normally resides on the root or c: partition of Windows. Here's all you have to do and then you to can have a single partiton with everything, including the swap file on the root partition if you........
  • 404 Not Found [IP: 151.101.194.132 80] apt update Debian 11 Bullseye Solution The repository 'http://security.debian.org bullseye/updates Release' does not have a Release file.


    This happens during an apt update and is related to an issue with sources.list, which is particularly troubling, if you are doing a "live-build". P: Configuring file /etc/apt/sources.list Hit:1 http://deb.debian.org/debian bullseye InRelease Get:2 http://deb.debian.org/debian bullseye-updates InRelease [39.4 kB........
  • (firefox:9562): LIBDBUSMENU-GLIB-WARNING **: Unable to get session bus: Failed to execute child process "dbus-launch" (No such file or directory) Solution


    (firefox:9562): LIBDBUSMENU-GLIB-WARNING **: Unable to get session bus: Failed to execute child process "dbus-launch" (No such file or directory) ExceptionHandler::GenerateDump cloned child 9743 ExceptionHandler::WaitForContinueSignal waiting for continue signal... ExceptionHandler::SendContinueSignalToChild sent continue signal to child [Parent 9562, Gecko_IOThread] WARNING: pipe error (40): Connection reset by peer: file /build/firefox-EymEXX/fire........
  • Debian Mint Ubuntu Which Package Provides missing top, ps and w Solution


    Install procps and it will install the other packages you need: apt install procps Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done The following additional packages will be installed: libgpm2 libncurses6 libprocps7 lsb-base psmisc Suggested packages: gpm The following NEW packages will be ins........
  • Docker Tutorial HowTo Install Docker, Use and Create Docker Container Images Clustering Swarm Mode Monitoring Service Hosting Provider


    The Best Docker Tutorial for Beginners We quickly explain the basic Docker concepts and show you how to do the most common tasks from starting your first container, to making custom images, a Docker Swarm Cluster Tutorial, docker compose and Docker buildfiles.........
  • How To Reset Windows Server Password 2019, 2022, 7, 8, 10, 11 Recovery and Removal Guide Using Linux Ubuntu Mint Debian


    This was done on Mint 20 but works the same on nearly any new Linux, but is only recommended for people comfortable or familiar with Linux. This method will work on almost all versions of Windows from NT, 2000, 2003 Server, 2008 Server, 2012 Server, 2016 Server, 2019 Server, 2022 Server, XP, Vista, 7, 8, 10 and 11. However, if you want the easiest solution to........
  • How To Create OpenVPN Server for Secure Remote Corporate Access in Linux Debian/Mint/Ubuntu with client public key authentication


    Why choose OpenVPN instead of a firewall appliance? OpenVPN can be a reliable and easy replacement for traditional hardware or just be an additional tool that your company uses so that the firewall can focus on its job rather than acting as a VPNappliance at the same time. When comparing OpenVPN with traditional firewal........
  • Package wget is not available, but is referred to by another package. This may mean that the package is missing, has been obsoleted, or is only available from another source. E: Package 'wget' has no installation candidate. Solution


    These types of errors are normally caused by misconfiguration of your /etc/apt/sources.list. In this example on Debian 10, if you didn't complete the install correctly, you will have no repos enabled and only rely on CDROM. "Package wget is not available, but is referred to by another package. This may mean that the package is missing, has been obsoleted, or is only available from another source. E: Package 'wget' ha........
  • Wazuh / OSSEC Install and Configuration Howto Tutorial Guide for Monitoring Agents SIEM


    How To Install Wazuh Server / Quickest Installation Wazuh (forked from the well known OSSEC project) is a full SIEM (Security Information Event Management) that works extremely well with the platforms it natively supports as an "Agent", which allows you to do scans of everything such as all processes running, CVE vulnerability check, incident reporting etc... Prerequisites: A lot of issues with Wazuh seem to be caused by i........
  • Linux Debian How To Enable Sudo/Sudoers for User "User not in sudoers file" Solution


    If you get an error that you aren't in the sudoers file, this typically means that your user is not designated as an admin with sudo privileges. In plain English, when it comes to some OS's like Debian including 10,11 etc.., by default the user is created without special privileges which is contrary to how Ubuntu/Mint handle the secondary user. Let's check the sudoers file to see the problem.........
  • How to allow SSH root user access in Linux/Debian/Mint/RHEL/Ubuntu/CentOS


    A lot of newer installs will automatically prohibit the root user from logging in directly, for security reasons or they will only allow key based access. If you know what you are doing/don't care about security or have an incredibly secure password for testing, then you can enable it. Edit this file: /etc/ssh/sshd_config Find the following line: PermitRootLogin Set it like this: PermitRootLogin yes Now rest........
  • Ansible Tutorial - Playbook How To Install From Scratch and Deploy LAMP + Wordpress on Remote Server


    1. Let's work from an environment where we can install Ansible on. If you are using an older version of Linux based on Mint 18 or Ubuntu 16, you may want to get the PPA and get the latest version of Ansible that way: sudo apt install gpg sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ansible/ansible sudo apt update........
  • Proxmox Update Error https://enterprise.proxmox.com/debian/pve bullseye InRelease 401 Unauthorized [IP: 144.217.225.162 443]


    Are you getting this error in Proxmox while trying to apt update or install Ceph? apt update Hit:1 http://security.debian.org bullseye-security InRelease Err:2 https://enterprise.proxmox.com/debian/pve bullseye InRelease 401 Unauthorized [IP: 144.217.225.162 443] Hit:3 http://ftp.hk.debian.org/debian bullseye InRelease ........
  • Linux Ubuntu Debian Centos Mint - How To Check if Intel VT-x or AMD-V Hardware Virtualization is Enabled?


    From the terminal do this: cat /proc/cpuinfo|grep -E "svm|vmx" You should get output like this(svm = AMD-v and vmx=Intel-VTx): flags : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush dts acpi mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht tm pbe syscall nx pdpe1gb rdtscp lm constant_tsc arch_perfmon pebs bts rep_good nopl xtopology nonstop_tsc cpuid aperfmperf pni pclmulqd........
  • Linux Mint 20 cannot install snapd missing solution


    The Linux Mint team has disabled it by setting an apt preference, you can edit or just remove the file: sudo apt install snapd Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done Package snapd is not available, but is referred to by another package. This may mean that the package is missing, has been obsoleted, or is only available from another source........
  • Virtualbox VBOX How To Install Guest-Utils/GuestUtils so drag and drop and clipboard works Ubuntu Mint Debian Linux


    Just install these packages and restart the VM: 1.) Enable guest-utils on the host side: sudo apt install virtualbox-guest-utils virtualbox-guest-x11 2.) Enable guest editions on the VMside This must be done for each VM that you want to have the guest additons for accelerated GPU performance and for drag and drop/clipboard sharing First insert the Guest Addtions CD image........
  • How to install Kubernetes with microk8s and deploy apps on Debian/Mint/Ubuntu Linux


    Kubernetes Easy Beginners Tutorial/Architecture Guide Kubernetes is known as container orchestration and we should start at explaining the container part of it. A Container is what runs the actual application and based on an Image, and are more comparable to something like an LXC Container, Virtuozzo/OpenVZ using the Linux Kernel Namespaces feature. Containers run these images as independent, isolated operating environments under the O........
  • Ubuntu/Debian Linux/Unix Howto Setup Install Syslinux Bootable USB with EFI and MBR from Command Line/CLI Terminal


    There aren't too many simple guides that show you how to use commands to setup your USB or other drive as a normal bootable drive where you can easily boot custom kernels or whatever OS you would like. 1. Get the tools we need: We install "syslinux" for MBR and "syslinux-efi" for EFI and "MBR" as we need a tool that embeds the actual MBR into our USB: sudo apt install syslinux syslinux-efi mbr........
  • bash how to hide username/customize prompt Linux Debian Redhat Ubuntu Solution


    Just edit your ~/.bashrc and add this at the very end: export PS1="realtechtalk.com" Then your prompt will look like this: bladeblox:uptime 08:47:14 up 48 min, 1 user, load average: 1.00, 1.07, 0.96 If you wanted a dollar sign at the end then you would change it like this: export PS1=&........
  • EFI PXE grub2 Howto guide for Linux EFI PXE Booting on Debian, Mint, Ubuntu, RHEL


    Just a quick note and warning is that if you are testing to see if EFIPXE booting works on a VM, MAKE SURE it actually works. For example Iinitially tested using my Distro's QEMU 2.5+dfsg-5ubuntu10.46 and ovmf BIOS firmware (OVMF supports EFI). However, I found on old versions of QEMU (like 2.5), EFIbooting with GRUB NEVER works so it may appear that you have made a mistake when everything is fine when you boot a physi........
  • Debian, Mint Ubuntu how to remove package and associated config files


    If you want to start fresh a lot of people falsely assume that an apt remove and then reinstall or apt --reinstall install package will start you off fresh. To be sure and remove all associated config files do the below with the example of ssh server (don't remove it though if you actually use it!) The key below is using the --purge flag or apt-get purge proftpd (eg sudo apt --purge remove packagename) apt purge proftpd; apt install proftpd........
  • Linux Grub not booting the intended kernel solution in Debian, Mint, Ubuntu how to specify which kernel to boot by default


    Traditionally kernels were numbered starting from 0 but by default the "new style" of grub boot loading considers each subkernel item to be different so if you have 3 entries for 4.40-148 rather than counting for 1. To get the expected behavior let's show this example and how we can boot it We do a grep on menuentry in /boot/grub/grub.cfg to see all of the bootable kernels rather than scrolling through loads of extra entries we don't care about (thou........
  • Linux how to compile binary with static sharedobjects embedded instead of dynamic to use on multi-distributions and avoid glibc compatiblity issues


    One simple flag to configure will create a makefile that statically links all the shared objects and embeds them instead the binary execute. This means as long as you have the same architecture that things should run. Eg. if you have an old version of Debian with a different version of glibc, then this will solve that problem. ./configure LDFLAGS="-static" To test that it is really statically linked run ldd: ldd src/wget........
  • /bin/sh: msgfmt: not found error solution on Linux Compilation Ubuntu Debian Mint Centos


    If you get this error, you were probably compiling some sort of binary or package and got this error. It is normally solved by installing the "gettext"package. On Debian/Ubuntu just apt-get it: apt-get install gettext After that you should be able to configure and make (compile) properly.........
  • Scanner not working in Linux Ubuntu Fedora Mint Debian over the network? Use sane-airscan!


    I have a Canon MF642c and the scanner wouldn't work. I tried to use saned but it didn't work with the BJNPlike it did for some other Canon models. Introducing sane-airscan with packages for the most common distributions: https://software.opensuse.org/download.html?project=home%3Apzz&package=sane-airscan http........
  • Linux Mint Ubuntu Debian CentOS Dual Boot Install Issues


    The best way to avoid this problem is to understand how your BIOS is setup to boot. Often newer machines will default to U(EFI) which is different than the traditional MBR/Legacy mode. The problem is that this may not be apparent, often a BIOS Boot Menu will show a Legacy Boot Option and EFIOption without defining it. A good example of this is if your USB is called "Kingston" you may see in your Boot Menu "Kingston" and also "Ubuntu"........
  • Linux Mint Ubuntu Debian Centos RHEL no sound solution


    This assumes your system is a fresh and normally working install. What often happens is that many new devices have multiple audio outputs which are generally analog and HDMI/Digital out. Sometimes the OS defaults to the wrong one that you didn't want. For example if your sound is supposed to play over the HDMI, perhaps the output is set to analog or vice versa.........
  • Linux Mint/Debian/Ubuntu/Centos Installer black grub screen and blank screen after trying to boot installer or main OS


    This happens to a lot of Nvidia users especially users of newer cards like the RTX series. If for example you are trying to boot and install Linux and you get a black and white grub2 screen instead of a nice graphical welcome installer, you probably suffer from this bug. It is normally followed by the user booting and finding they just have a blank/black screen. Here is the quick flow of steps to fix it: If you get a black grub scree........
  • Virtualbox Error Cannot register the hard disk because a hard disk with UUID already exists solution


    Cannot register the hard disk '/some/path/windows-marking.vdi' {f54def00-2252-43f5-9178-0998636cad61} because a hard disk '/other-path/windows-marking.vdi' with UUID {f54def00-2252-43f5-9178-0998636cad61} already exists. Result Code: NS_ERROR_INVALID_ARG (0x80070057) Component: VirtualBoxWrap Interface: IVirtualBox {0169423f-46b4-cde9-91af-1e9d5b6cd945} Callee RC: VBOX_E_OBJECT_NOT_FOUND (0x80BB0001)........
  • Nvidia Ubuntu Linux Screentearing Video with solution driver


    This seems to happen on most if not all Nvidia cards but the good news is that if you are using any of the Linux drivers and have the nvidia-settings tool installed it is just a simple command. Solution: nvidia-settings --assign CurrentMetaMode="nvidia-auto-select +0+0 { ForceFullCompositionPipeline = On }" Enter the above command in your terminal and the screentearing will be fixed which is like enabling Tear Free on AMD cards.&........
  • How To Get Started on Ubuntu with gpt-2 OpenAI Text Prediction


    apt install software-properties-common add-apt-repository ppa:deadsnakes/ppa apt update apt install python3-pip apt install python3.7 curl gnupg python3.7-dev git ln -s /usr/bin/python3.7 /usr/bin/python3 pip3 install numpy keras_preprocessing curl https://bazel.build/bazel-release.pub.gpg | sudo apt-key add - echo "deb [arch=amd64] http://storage.googleapis.com/bazel-apt stable jdk1.8" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/bazel........
  • Remove cloud-init in your VM


    Unless you are using OpenStack, AWS etc then cloud-init is just some bloat that slows down the booting of your VMand can actually halt it from booting if it doesn't have a proper working IP (not good!). #remove cloud init! Debian based Ubuntu / Mint sudo apt remove cloud-init RHEL / CentOS based yum remove cloud-init ........
  • Linux How To Change NIC Name to eth0 instead of enps33 or enp0s25


    Most newer distros inexplicably cause your NIC to have what Icall "random" non-standard name conventions because of systemd. This is a big problem for many people and especially those running servers. Imagine that you have a static IPconfigured for ens33 but then the hard disk is moved to a newer system, the NIC could be anything from ens33 to enp0s1, meaning that manual intervention is required to go and update the NIC config file (eg. /etc/network/interfa........
  • virt-resize: error: libguestfs error: could not create appliance through libvirt.


    This is caused because the user is running as qemu for virt-resize and if qemu does not have privileges to read from the source and write to the destination, it will fail with the below. So either change the uid of qemu or change the ownership of the source and target. Solution: export LIBGUESTFS_BACKEND=direct virt-resize --expand /dev/sda2 /root/kvmtemplates/windows2019-eval-template.img /root/kvmguests/kvmkvmuser4515........
  • Linux Debian Ubuntu How To Install PEPPER Faster and Latest Adobe Flash Player in Firefox


    Just run this apt install command sudo apt install pepperflashplugin-nonfree browser-plugin-freshplayer-pepperflash After this restart your browser and check Adobe's site to verify if your Pepper flash is working and showing at least version 32. https://helpx.adobe.com/flash-player.html As you'll see below it will download the latest version which is currently 32 and this was not possible with the old/crappy deprecated adobe-flash plu........
  • How To Speed Up Linux Ubuntu and Debian Based Computers By Improving CPU Performance and Changing the CPU Governor


    I used to believe that for Desktops especially that the "ondemand" CPUfrequency changing that kernels included with Ubuntu and Debian based distros have would be sufficient for snappy performance. However, you can feel the lack of performance on the fastest computer if you have ondemand. A lot of times even under high load 100% of your CPUfrequency in MHz will not be used. For example a 2.8Ghz CPUmay only run at 1.8MHz or even .9GHz. Now........
  • Linux Mint Ubuntu Debian radeon slow 2D performance issues radeon_dp_aux_transfer_native: 158 callbacks suppressed


    radeon_dp_aux_transfer_native: 158 callbacks suppressed The simple answer is that radeon driver sucks and is a remnant of typical AMD/ATI issues. Use AMDGPUif you support it:........
  • Ubuntu Debian Linux Cannot Install Wine Solution - wine1.6 : Depends: wine1.6-i386 (= 1:1.6.2-0ubuntu14.2) but it is not installable wine1.4 : Depends: wine1.6 but it is not going to be installed


    If you've ever gotten errors like this the solution is simple, you need i386 enabled on your 64-bit install because wine depends on some 32-bit x86 libraries: dpkg --add-architecture i386 apt update apt install wine After that it will install just fine. apt install wine Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done........
  • How To Install python 3.4 3.5 and up on Linux with wine - Working Solution


    This is sure simple if you follow the guide but it took a lot of hacking around to make this work on Debian/Ubuntu! Now before you ask why bother running wine and python, the reason is because Python executables are NOT cross-platform. If you run pyinstaller in Linux, that binary will only run on Linux and the same if you do it in Windows. So it is preferable if you have a single environment that you can create Linux and Windows binaries from rather than running 2 separate........
  • using Xvfb on virtual remote ssh server to have X graphical programs work


    The scenario here is that you have some sort of remote headless Linux server but would like to run some programs on them and get graphical access to them. The problem is that the remote server may be an image or VMwithout any virtual GPU and even if so, it is likely without KDE or Gnome, so there's no real way to do this, unless you follow our guide. Install xvfb apt install xvfb Reading package lists... D........
  • ssh Received disconnect from port 22:2: Too many authentication failures


    If you are getting this error it is usually caused by having more than 5 keys in your ".ssh" directory. It is a bit of a bug and this is how it manifests itself. You will find at this point that you are not given any chance to enter a password, or if you are using key based auth that the same thing happens. You'll also find that this is happening with ALLservers you try connecting to. The solution is to move away key pairs from .ssh so that there ar........
  • Radeon R3 GPU on Debian Crashing


    Occasionally my whole screen locks up and I cannot even swith to the console and I find this in my syslog: *-display description: VGA compatible controller product: Mullins [Radeon R3 Graphics] vendor: Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. [AMD/ATI]  ........
  • MySQL 5.7 on Debian and Ubuntu - How To Reset Root Password


    MySQL on Debian versions is configured differently than the native local MySQL plugin so you will be disappointed when your password on the mysql client fails by default. Here is how you reset the MySQL root password the proper and "working way" #first we gracefully stop mysql sudo systemctl stop mysql; #then we forcefully kill any mysqld process just in case sudo killall -9 mysqld mysqld_safe;........
  • Howto Set Static IP on boot in initramfs for dropbear or other purposes NFS, Linux, Debian, Ubuntu, CentOS


    This is only really necessary in the case you don't want DHCP. If you are dealing with an encrypted LUKS server on the internet, you will often want to have a static IP so you know which IP to connect to (or if you have a semi-static IP assigned by DHCP). SET IP Address by /etc/initramfs-tools/initramfs.conf IP Address=192.168.1.27 Gateway=192.168.1.1 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0 Hostname=myhome.com IP=192.1........
  • Convert and install to LUKS Encrypted Drive Ubuntu 18.04 19.10 Linux Mint and Debian Based Linux


    The reason for doing this is that the installer doesn't seem to work properly for LUKS and the server installer doesn't even support LUKS anymore. When you use the GUI install on Desktop for LUKS it won't boot and will just hang after you enter your password. So the only reliable way is to do it ourselves. 1.) Make a default minimal install of Ubuntu 2.) Have a secondary disk on the server or VM. 3.)........
  • Debian and Netplan


    Create your netplan file vi /etc/netplan/01-netcfg.yaml network: version: 2 renderer: networkd ethernets: ens3: dhcp4: no ........
  • Linux Mint / Ubuntu / Debian Mate Disable Guest Session and Hide Usernames on Lightdm Login screen GUI


    sudo vi /etc/lightdm/lightdm.conf.d/70-linuxmint.conf Change this: [SeatDefaults] user-session=mate allow-guest=false To this: [SeatDefaults] user-session=mate allow-guest=false greeter-hide-users=true greeter-show-manual-login=true To see and apply your changes just restart light........
  • Ubuntu Linux Mint Debian xorg performance and tear-free tuning for AMD Radeon Based Cards


    I find that the default settings for the radeon driver that is applied to most AMD cards is horrible. For example by default TearFree is not enabled and it causes videos to have some kind of square artifacts. Here are the settings I have found most suitable for AMD cards: You need to create file in the following path and restart Xorg or your computer to apply it: *Beware that making a mistake here will possibly make your computer........
  • Ubuntu Debian Linux Mint r8169 r8168 Network Driver Problem and Solution


    This problem has been around forever, Linux seems to think it is fine to use the r8169 driver for an r8168 NIC but this often causes problems including the link not working at all. In my case ethttool shows the link up and detected but it simply does not work especially on a laptop that has been resumed from suspension. Sometimes it takes several minutes for it to work or to unplug and replug the ethernet. Here is the solution: Install th........
  • How To Install Asterisk 16 17 on Debian Ubuntu Linux


    Downloading and compiling from source to get the latest version of Asterisk is really simple with this guide. apt install gcc make g++ libedit-dev uuid-dev libjansson-dev apt install libxml2-dev sqlite3 libsqlite3-dev wget http://downloads.asterisk.org/pub/telephony/asterisk/asterisk-16-current.tar.gz tar -zxvf asterisk-16-current.tar.gz cd asterisk-16.6.2/ ./configure If you get this error change y........
  • Linux Ubuntu Debian Centos How To Make a Bootable Windows 7, 8, 10, 2016, 2019 Server USB from ISO


    Use fdisk on your USB drive to create a bootable NTFS partition (in my case /dev/sdb): sudo fdisk /dev/sdb Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.27.1). Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them. Be careful before using the write command. Command (m for help): n Partition type p primary (0 primary, 0 extended, 4 free)........
  • Debian Ubuntu Mint rc-local service startup error solution rc-local.service: Failed at step EXEC spawning /etc/rc.local: Exec format error


    Oct 18 11:06:46 server systemd[529]: rc-local.service: Failed at step EXEC spawning /etc/rc.local: Exec format error Oct 18 11:06:46 server systemd[1]: rc-local.service: Control process exited, code=exited status=203 Oct 18 11:06:46 server systemd[1]: Failed to start /etc/rc.local Compatibility. Oct 18 11:06:46 server systemd[1]: rc-local.service: Unit entered failed state. Oct 18 11:06:46 server systemd[1]: rc-local.service: Failed with result 'exit-code'.........
  • python import docx error


    sudo pip3 install python-docx [sudo] password for : Downloading/unpacking python-docx Downloading python-docx-0.8.10.tar.gz (5.5MB): 5.5MB downloaded Running setup.py (path:/tmp/pip_build_root/python-docx/setup.py) egg_info for package python-docx no previously-included directories found matching 'docs/.build' warning: no previously-included files matching '.DS_Store' foun........
  • Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express Cheatsheet CUCME CME Tutorial Guide


    Video Links: How To Setup 2 Phones on a Single CME Router and get the GUI going. How to use Dialpeers with CME with two routers How to implement call restrictions using COR / Class of Restriction Getting started, let's enable ephones and DNs we can add a phone with........
  • Linux Ubuntu Debian Missing privilege separation directory: /var/run/sshd


    service sshd status ● ssh.service - OpenBSD Secure Shell server Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/ssh.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled) Active: failed (Result: start-limit-hit) since Wed 2019-10-02 11:07:54 EDT; 36s ago Process: 476 ExecStartPre=/usr/sbin/sshd -t (code=exited, status=255) Oct 02 11:07:54 box systemd[1]: Failed to start OpenBSD Secure Shell server. Oct 02 11:07:54 box sys........
  • Debian Ubuntu Mint Howto Create Bridge (br0)


    Having a network bridge allows you to bridge traffic under multiple devices so they can talk natively without using any special routing, iptables/firewall or other trickery. To create your bridge you need the bridge-utils package for brctl and if you want to do things like bridge VMs that run on a tap device you will need the uml-utilities which provides "tunctl". 1.) Install the utilities to make our bridge sudo apt-get i........
  • How To Control Interface that dhcpd server listens to on Debian based Linux like Mint and Ubuntu


    By default your DHCP will often not work because it is not listening on any interfaces. All you have to do is edit this file: vi /etc/default/isc-dhcp-server then find the "INTERFACES" line and add each interface that should listen: INTERFACES="br0 enp0s10" ........
  • LUKS unable to type password to unlock during boot on Debian, Ubuntu and Mint


    I think this is more so an issue with kernel modules not being included. I had this issue on Linux Mint because a new kernel I upgraded to DIDNOT have the "extra" modules and part of that reason is also because older kernels are named differently than new ones. Take this example article below that shows it in action. If you were previously........
  • Debian Ubuntu and Linux Mint Broken Kernel After Date - New Extra Module Naming Convention


    I don't consider a lot of these "extra" kernel modules "nice to have" as they often contain drivers for essential items like your soundcard, your NIC and many other devices that may not work. Sometimes you may find that "sound" or "ethernet" worked before a kernel/OS upgrade and now in the new version they don't. Often it will be because you need to install the "extra" kernel modules. One other weird thing is that sometimes........
  • python 3 pip cannot install mysql module


    python3 testserver.com-car-scraping.py html.txt Traceback (most recent call last): File "testserver.com-car-scraping.py", line 5, in import mysql.connector ImportError: No module named 'mysql' For some reason it won't install properly even though I have the mysql client on this machine installed too. Solution: You need the mys........
  • Virtualbox vbox not starting


    If you've just installed VBox and it is not starting or working, the most common problem is usually that you don't have your kernel source installed, which means there is no kernel driver for vbox so it can't work. You may get an error that says "Kernel driver not installed" in your Virtualbox. So the first thing you should do is install your kernel source by running this: sudo apt-get install linux-headers-`uname -r`........
  • Cisco Unified Communications Manager / CUCM IP 8.6,10,12 Install Error Solution


    Install Errors on Version 12: This error happened on QEMU emulator version 2.11.1 pve-qemu-kvm_2.11.1-5 on Proxmox/Debian but installing on QEMU.12 on Centos 6 did not produce the error. *Update it is not related to the OS or QEMU version. This happened in Centos 6 too after a second install. What really causes this even though you successfully install........
  • Ubuntu Debian Mint Linux SSHD OpenSSH Server Not Starting After Reboot Solution


    If you get error messages like this it is usually because /var/run/sshd does not exist. root@userbox:/# service sshd status ● ssh.service - OpenBSD Secure Shell server Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/ssh.service; enabled; vendor preset: enab Active: failed (Result: start-limit-hit) since Wed 2019-04-10 02:24:44 EDT; 1 Process: 511 ExecStartPre=/usr/sbin/sshd -t (code=exited, status=255)........
  • Cisco Unified Communications Manager 12 Install Errors on Proxmox/KVM


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  • vi Debian Linux Ubuntu Mint arrow key problem linux ssh bash shell terminal


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    Cannot register the hard disk '/media/Debian8.vdi' {d01efabc-aacf-4614-b29c} because a hard disk '/home/VirtualBox VMs/Debian/Debian8.vdi' with UUID {d01efabc-aacf-4614-b29} already exists. This is what happens if you move the VDI to another location. The easiest way is to delete/remove the machine from VBOX and then reimport it from the new location.........
  • Mount a SMB Samba share in fstab Linux Debian/Ubuntu/Centos


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    Say you have a bunch of files like this: file-01.jpg file-02.jpg ............... What if you want to mass rename them? the rename tool can work just like sed For Debian based distros: Note "file" is what we search for and "newname" is what we replace it with, so substitute according to your requirements. rename s/file/newname/ name-file-*.jpg For R........
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  • Debian 8 Jessie in Linux OpenVZ Container does not work on Centos host


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    http://sourceforge.net/projects/apacheoo-deb/files/debian/dists/wheezy/main/binary-i386/ To install AOO on your computer, you need to add the following entry to the /etc/apt/sources.list file: deb http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/apacheoo-deb/debian wheezy main sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install openoffice-en* openoffice-brand-writer openoffice-brand-calc openoffice-brand-impress openoffice-brand-base open........
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    wget http://download-location sudo tar xjvf thunderbird-24.2.0.tar.bz2 -C /opt ln -s /opt/thunderbird/thunderbird /usr/bin/thunderbird [sudo] password for one: ln: creating symbolic link `/usr/bin/thunderbird': File exists sudo rm /usr/bin/thunderbird ln -s /opt/thunderbird/thunderbird /usr/bin/thunderbird The above is how Idid it, if you don't do it properly you'll find that you are still using the old version (........
  • Linux Ubuntu Debian Howto Manually Update/Install Firefox


    wget http://download-location mv /usr/bin/firefox /usr/bin/firefox-old sudo tar xjvf firefox-26.0.tar.bz2 -C /opt ln -s /opt/firefox/firefox /usr/bin/firefox The above is how Idid it, if you don't do it properly you'll find that you are still using the old version (so verify in About that it is the new version). I've verified the above method works perfectly, it's great if you're using an older version of Linux and need to update the most........
  • openssh-server has no installation candidate Debian/Ubuntu Solution


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    Download the latest from Adobe's site and unzip it, enter the directory it creates and type the following: sudo cp libflashlayer.so /usr/lib/adobe-flashplugin/ sudo cp -r usr/* /usr........
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    Solution To The Following: yum -y install zlib-devel yum -y install e2fsprogs* *** Cannot find /usr/include/et/com_err.h. (yum install libcom_err-devel) *** Installation didn't pass, halting install. Once requirements are met, run the following to continue the install: cd /usr/local/directadmin/scripts ./install.sh Common pre-install commands: http://help.directadmin.com/it........
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  • ip_conntrack: table full, dropping packet. solution for Linux RHEL/Centos/Debian


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    00:14.2 Audio device: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] Hudson Azalia Controller (rev 01) 00:01.1 Audio device: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI Device 9902 Backup your also.conf file cp /usr/share/alsa/alsa.conf /usr/share/alsa/alsa.conf.bk Change all instances of "card 0" to "card 1" (no need to manually do it, this command below does it all instantly and without fail or error:........
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  • Debian UUID not working


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  • Ubuntu 10 Nvidia Drivers Not Updated After Kernel Update Solution/How-To Manually Rebuild nvidia kernel modules for Ubuntu


    I dread updating the kernel and rebooting to find the Ubuntu graphics aren't working and you have to manually intervene. This is usually because Ubuntu for whatever reason didn't update the drivers you need (eg. the manually compiled Nvidia Kernel driver that MUST be recompiled for each and every kernel update unfortunately). The most common reason may be that "linux-source" hasn't been installed automatically on my system. I tried to manually reinstall the........
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    It really is as simple as: cdrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 pathtoyourisoimage.iso -v is for verbose, I prefer it but if you don't you won't see as much output like below (I like to know the details and exactly what's happening) dev=/dev/sr0 specifies the device name of your burner (they say not to use it and to specify some weird annoying device string but using the raw /dev has always worked for me and is how it should have been implemented from the start IMHO)........
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  • convert carat ^M/M Windows based text files to Linux


    carat M isn't this symbol ^ that you think, it can only be produced by typing "Ctrl-v, Ctrl-m". That you might see in text files saved from Windows. tofrodos is the package that has dos2unix which is basically the same scripts that replace ^M with /n tofrodos is the Debian/Buntu package name which has the dos2unix and unix2dos binaries........
  • vi problem in Ubuntu/Debian distros when editing up,down,left,right arrow keys produce A,B,D,C respectively


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  • Centos Solution to "Warning: Unable to open /dev/fd0 read-write (Read-only file system). /dev/fd0 has been opened read-only."


    Warning: Unable to open /dev/fd0 read-write (Read-only file system). /dev/fd0 has been opened read-only. That's a very annoying error, it's simply because Centos for some reason thinks it's wise to load the "floppy" kernel module, who has a floppy drive? I haven't seen or used a floppy for over 12 years! It's more than just annoying, if you probe the drives attached to your system, eg. with grub or partprobe, it keeps trying to locate a flopp........
  • Openvz YUM Error Solution to "[Errno -1] Metadata file does not match checksum Trying other mirror."


    It's weird because I have a nearly identical box and setup and I can update the ovzkernel-PAE* just fine but on this box it doesn't work. I only get this error with the openvz.repo and not others such as Centos-Base.repo With my other server it works normally: ================ Setting up Update Process Resolving Dependencies --> Running transaction check ---> Package ovzkernel-PAE.i686 0:2.6.18-238.12.1.el5.0........
  • Kernel/make compilation time and how to improve compile times/compile the Linux kernel faster without hardware upgrades


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  • vnstat setup guide/tutorial


    yum -y install vnstat chown nobody.nobody -R /var/lib/vnstat/ #replace venet0 below with your desired interface sudo -u nobody vnstat -u -i venet0 #edit: vi /etc/sysconfig/vnstat #VNSTAT_OPTIONS="-i venet0" # only use the sed below if you are using venet0 instead of eth0 or replace accordingly sed -i 's/eth0/venet0/g' /etc/sysconfig/vnstat [root@monitor]# yum install vn........
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  • Linux High IOWAIT updatedb can't be killed and crash with mdadm


    high IO wait 424 root 39 19 1900 848 552 D 0.0 0.0 0:00.91 updatedb root 424 0.0 0.0 1900 848 ? DN Mar11 0:00 /usr/bin/updatedb -f sysfs?rootfs?bdev?proc?cpuset?binfmt_misc?debugfs?sockfs?usbfs?pipefs?anon_inodefs?futexfs?tmpfs?inotifyfs?eventp........
  • Apache MPM worker vs prefork


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  • Installing Webmin & Enabling SSL


    Webmin Setup Centos 5: wget http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/webadmin/webmin/1.530/webmin-1.530-1.noarch.rpm?r=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.webmin.com%2Fstandard.html&ts=1294339690&use_mirror=surfnet [1] 24229 [2] 24230 [root@host ~]# --2011-01-06 21:48:20-- http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/webadmin/webmin/1.530/webmin-1.530-1.noarch.rpm?r=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.webmin.com%2Fstandard.html Resolving downloads.sourceforge.net... 216.34.181.........
  • SSH delay problem UseDNS and disabling GSSAPI does not help


    The normal solution doesn't help or apply here: ssh -v user@192.168.5.41 OpenSSH_4.3p2 Debian-9etch3, OpenSSL 0.9.8c 05 Sep 2006 debug1: Reading configuration data /etc/ssh/ssh_config debug1: Applying options for * debug1: Connecting to 192.168.5.41 [192.168.5.41] port 22. debug1: Connection established. debug1: permanently_set_uid: 0/0 debug1: identity file /root/.ssh/identity type -1 debug1: i........
  • vmare server - Cannot open the disk '/mnt/sda4/vmware/Debian/hdd.vmdk' or one of the snapshot disks it depends on. Reason: Failed to lock the file.


    Go into the directory for your Virtual Machine and delete all ".lck" directories. rm -rf *.lck After that your server should boot.........
  • Ubuntu/Debian DRBD 8.0 Setup Guide


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  • EOL for Kubuntu/Ubuntu 8.04 - W: Failed to fetch http://ca.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/dists/intrepid/universe/source/Sources.gz 404 Not Found [IP: 91.189.92.171 80]


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  • Wine stopped working/won't work Solution


    After an upgrade wine wouldn't open anything, not even the pre-installed notepad. There are no wine logs and nothing is mentioned in any standard log file about why. I finally decided to run wine from the shell and see what's going on: wine client error:0: version mismatch 398/402. Your wineserver binary was not upgraded correctly, or you have an older one somewhere in your PATH. Or maybe the wrong wineserver is still running?........
  • Nautilus/GNOME File Manager handy list of extensions


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  • Buffer I/O error on device fd0, logical block 0


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  • PHP CURL SSL won't work or connect


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  • Revert to GRUB 0.97/1 instead of GRUB2


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  • Linux Kernel Freeze/Hang during boot on io scheduler cfq registered (default)


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  • Shutdown/Power/Halt In Debian/Ubuntu/Centos Guide Systems Doesn't Work


    Different distributions such as Debian and Centos behave differently when trying to shutdown your system. shutdown -H now on Debian does not do what you'd expect. The system won't power down, it will halt and do everything but power down. shutdown -PH now will do the job though (actually power the system off). This is important to test especially if you are not near the system. If you just use -P it forcefully shuts off which is not........
  • jailkit for chroot ssh account security tutorial and fix for error


    This was done on Centos butI think it's easier on Debian machines, the paths that it is set to use are tailored towards Debian, so there is some fiddling that needs to be done on Centos. This is for chrooting ssh, but jailkit has other uses than just SSH jails but I won't cover them in this writeup. 1. Install jailkit yum install jailkit 2. Setup Jail Home mkdir /home/jail chown root:root /home/ja........
  • FUSE/Curlftpfs mount ftp account as drive partition in Linux


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  • LUKS/cryptsetup Tutorial for Linux Hard Drive Partition Encryption


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  • Fix Slow 2D Graphics Xorg.conf Ubuntu/Debian/Mandriva Linux


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  • Debian 5.04 RAID 1 mdadm boot problem GRUB error


    I successfully created a single RAID 1 partition which includes /boot inside it and my root directory through the Debian installer. It said GRUB installed successfully but when I try booting the OS it seems GRUB can't read anything. When trying to boot from GRUB GRUB Loading stage 1.5. GRUB loading, please wait... Error 2 I get "Error 2" when trying to boot Debian. I also notice from a LiveCD that........
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    In Debian based distros: apt-get install jabber Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required: fakeroot dkms Use 'apt-get autoremove' to remove them. The following extra packages will be installed: jabber-common The following NEW packag........
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    I thought I was being smart, I wanted to download some Debian packages so I went to /var/cache/apt/archives and did "rm -rf *" but then I couldn't use apt-get anymore. I kept getting this error: E: Archive directory /var/cache/apt/archives/partial is missing. E: The list of sources could not be read. The solution was to recreate the "partial" directory inside /var/cache/apt/archives and then everything will be fine.........
  • Nice General Linux RAID 1 Guide


    Nice General Linux RAID 1 GuideFull examples/tutorials that should work for any Linux system using GRUB or LILO as the boot loader. This is the only tutorial I've seen that clearly shows how you can convert an existing non-RAID system to software RAID1 remotely, without ever having to be at the computer. This is important for people who co-locate or rent dedicated servers that they may not have physical access to in a timely manner. https://alioth.debia........
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  • Enable/Disable PHP Warnings/Logs and Errors from .htaccess with Apache


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    Shortcut/Easiest Way To Create A Self-Signed Key: openssl req -new -x509 -nodes -days 1530 -out server.crt -keyout server.key Using the above, you instantly create a self-signed certificate valid for 1530 days and you can simply skip to step #5.) below. If You Need a Real SSLCertificate (eg. Equifax/Openssl) then you need to create a CSR request (you'll need to follow Steps 1.) and 2.) in order to create the CSR. You then upload the CSR Certi........
  • How To Enable 3rd/third party packages in RHEL/Redhat/Centos 4/5 Linux via RPMForge


    It's a bit of a pain that many basic third party tools that aren't put of the main Centos/RHEL repositories are not available unless you compile them or install the RPMForge Repo. *Updated 08/29 with new download location changed from apt.sw.be to rpmforge.sw.be Here's a quick, simple/cut&paste way to do it: wget http://rpmforge.sw.be/redhat/el5/en/i386/rpmforge/RPMS/rpmforge-release-0.5.1-1.el5.rf.i386.rpm rpm -i rpmforge........
  • Linux/Unix Open SSH Login Without Password Key Exchange including Debian, Redhat, Fedora, Ubuntu, BSD etc..


    In those 4 simple commands you can setup mutual key exchange between two sshservers by using a single login shell session and single window. *Just change the IP address examples of (10.10.0.2) to the target of your mutual key exchange. It doesn't matter if the server is on a LANor WAN(well unless the server is behind a firewall and you cannot SSHinto it).........
  • Timezone Change/Updated for Linux/Unix Debian/Fedora/Ubuntu/Centos Change Update Time zone


    In Newer Linux Distros This Way Is Easiest and works on newer versions like Ubuntu, Mint, Fedora, Centos, Debian etc. #if you are missing timedatectl this in newer distros like Ubuntu/Mint/Debian and are using a container like Docker then do "apt install systemd" timedatectl set-timezone America/Vancouver Replace the America/Vancouver with the correct timezone. To see the list you can just type "timedatectl set........
  • How To Save iptables firewall rules Centos/Redhat/Fedora Linux


    This is something that annoys a lot of people, fortunately the Redhat style OS's are the most simple in this respect. I disagree that Debian's way makes sense, it is more of a hackish approach in how they implement iptables. Anyway, for those who are using Redhat/Centos style OS's it is very simple. Set your rules from the shell/command prompt and to save the iptables firewall rules so they are remember/loaded on boot just run this command: service iptables........
  • SSH Slow Login even with SSHD UseDNS no parameter


    Icouldn't understand why on one system it took a few minutes to get the SSHlogin prompt when connecting to other systems. The other systems all had the UseDNS parameter set to no, which almost always resolves the login prompt delay. The reason is Ubuntu and perhaps Debian and other distributions /etc/nsswitch.conf file Edit yours to have the "hosts" line like so (notice that files and dns are the primary resolution choice........
  • SSH Server Slow/Lagged/Delayed Login Response


    This is really something the SSHServer developers should consider. The cause of this annoyance is because of failed DNS lookups on your IPaddress, which is especially common for many dedicated/col-located servers and also computers on internal NAT/private networks. The chances are this is the cause of your SSHSlow/Delayed Login problems. The easy solution to SSH Login Problems Edit /etc/ssh/sshd_config Add this line to disable r........
  • SIOCSIFADDR No such device eth0 error while getting interface flags - eth0 Ethernet Device can


    Igot this after copying a VMWare image onto another machine in Debian. SIOCSIFADDR No such device eth0 error while getting interface flags The solution 1.) Find and edit the device line in persisent-net.rules note it will be prefixed with something like z25 or something else. vi /etc/udev/rules.d/z25_persistent-net.rules The easiest way is to comment anything out. If you are feeling........
  • Configuring OCFS2 Clustered File System on Debian Based Linux including Ubuntu and Kubuntu


    There's a lot of information and guides on OCFS2 for RHELand Centos Linux but the package setup and configuration is slightly different and this has thrown some people off. Installing OC2FS You should install the following packages to get started: apt-get install ocfs2-tools ocfs2console Configure OC2FS In RHEL/Centos the main configuration file is located in /etc/sysconfig/o2cb However in Debian based Linux it is located........
  • LAME MP3 Encoder Segmentation Faults


    This happened on one of my Ubuntu machines where Igot some kind of segfault on line 21 from LAME at random while encoding MP3s (a second try is fine usually). I've read that it's best to compile it from source and that has solved most issues for people. Here is my preferred configure line: ./configure --enable-mp3x --with-fileio=lame --enable-debug --with-vorbis Even with that I got a different error this tim........
  • Writing/Burning a data CD-R/DVD-R or DVD+RW in Unix/Linux


    There's a lot of outdated information and confusion for system administrator's out there. One annoying task for many an Administrator has been backing up data in Linux. You don't need any GUI tools such as K3B or GnomeBaker. Both are excellent tools but for veteran command line users working remotely, using the keyboard is a great and possibly automated way to save yourself pain and hassle. At a later date we'll cover how scripting can automatically backup certain........
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