• Docker Swarm vs Kubernetes Comparison Guide


    A lot of companies are unsure which solution to choose and many may not be aware of Docker Swarm as an alternative to Kubernetes. One thing that many Sysadmins find is that Docker Swarm is simply easier, quicker to setup and maintain by far than Kubernetes.........
  • When is it time to leave your VPS/VDS Cloud Hosting Provider?


    When Is It Time to Leave Your VPS, VDS, and Dedicated Server Provider? Choosing the right hosting solution—be it Virtu........
  • 2024 Buyer's Guide: How to Choose and Buy the Best VPS/VDS for Your Needs - Tips and Strategies


    In today’s digital landscape, finding a reliable and secure Virtual Private Server (VPS) or Virtual Dedicated Server (VDS) goes beyond just comparing specs and prices. With increasing concerns over data privacy, security breaches, and government surveillance, the wisdom of choosing your VPS/VDS provider based on juri........
  • Install Grafana on Linux Debian Ubuntu Tutorial Guide


    First we need a few extra packages: apt update apt install -y adduser libfontconfig1 musl sudo wget https://dl.grafana.com/enterprise/release/grafana-enterprise_10.3.1_amd64.deb Install / Enable Grafana dpkg -i grafana-enterprise_10.3.1_amd64.deb dpkg -i grafana-enterprise_10.3.1_amd64.deb (Reading database ... 44309 files and directories currently installed.) Preparin........
  • How To Completely Disable ufw in Linux Ubuntu Mint Debian


    This is for the situation that you're doing other things that may conflict or have your own custom rules and ufw keeps overriding iptables. A lot of guides don't work, and even ufw reset does not work, because it still leaves the old ufw chains. Here is what works to disable ufw completely systemctl stop ufw systemctl disable ufw ufw disable rm -f /et........
  • System has not been booted with systemd as init system (PID 1). Can't operate. Failed to talk to init daemon. Ubuntu Debian Linux Solution Cannot reboot


    You are probably using some custom image or maybe this is some sort of container that didn't boot with systemd. The solution is to use "reboot -f" reboot -f This will force the system/OS/VM/container to reboot.........
  • Mint Ubuntu Linux Gnome Showing Home Directory on Desktop instead of Desktop Directory


    During a migration or other custom setup, it's possible you don't have a $HOME/Desktop and as a result the config file that controls this is set to just use your $HOME directory. This is controlled in the file: $HOME/.config/user-dirs.dirs As we can see below, Desktop, Downloads, Music and Pictures are set to $HOME. We can edit any of these as we like. # This file is written by xdg-user-dirs-update # If you want........
  • Linux how to get list of all timezones on system Ubuntu


    find /usr/share/zoneinfo/|sed s#"/usr/share/zoneinfo/"##g|grep "/"|grep -v posix|grep -v ^"Etc/"|grep -v ^right|grep -v ^"SystemV" Africa/Addis_Ababa Africa/Abidjan Africa/Blantyre Africa/Lusaka Africa/Casablanca Africa/Libreville Africa/Asmara Africa/Bujumbura Africa/Dakar Africa/Lagos Africa/Malabo Africa/Harare Africa/Kigali........
  • glib-2.0 required to compile QEMU solution


    ./configure glib-2.0 required to compile QEMU yum install glib2 glib2-devel or on Debian/Ubuntu based: apt install libglib2 libglib2-dev........
  • How To Upgrade Debian 8,9,10 to Debian 12 Bookworm


    Step 1.) Upgrade to Debian 11 first The process to go to Debian 12 is not as smooth as 11, when trying to upgrade from Debian 10. In fact, it doesn't work directly, so you'll first need to follow this guide to update to Debian 11, reboot and come back here if successful. Step 2.) Update sources.list Update your /etc/apt/sources.list like this: deb http://........
  • Linux dhcp dhclient Mint Redhat Ubuntu Debian How To Use Local Domain DNS Server Instead of ISPs


    If you are running a local DNS server like named/bind and don't want to use the ISPsupplied DNS servers that are announced via a DHCP request (using dhclient) then the solution is simple. The reason should be obvious, but normally running your own DNS server will provide a more reliable, and fast DNS response and you won't have to worry about filtering as much (unless your upstream filters or proxies outgoing DNS requests). Edit /etc/dhcp/dhclient.conf........
  • apache2 httpd apache server will not start [pid 22449:tid 139972160445760] AH00052: child pid 23248 exit signal Aborted (6) solution Mint Debian Ubuntu Redhat


    If you get this error, it is often because you have configured Apache with modules that weren't actually installed. Eg. you try to load the PHPmodule but didn't actually install the apache2 php module, so the server can't start. In general, this error can often be caused by issues with problematic modules and/or Apache being configured for modules that have not actually be installed (eg. libapache2-mod-php) is missing. The above results in this less than obv........
  • How to use the FTDI USB serial cable to RJ45 adapter to connect to the console on Cisco/Juniper Switch Router Firewall in Linux Ubuntu Debian Redhat


    This should work for most console ports of other manufacturers too. It is a quick and simple method for emegencies or deploying a few appliances/devices in a non-standard environment or small environment. However, if this is a route thing, or the equipment is not physically close to you, it would be best to use some sort of "Terminal" server which is an IP connected switch with several serial ports built-in for this purpose. Normally they accessible by web/........
  • How To Setup Python3 in Ubuntu Docker Image for AI Deep Learning


    The issue is that Docker images are stripped down, so many tools and even python3 is missing, so you'll have to build or update the actual image yourself. I assume you have started an image with something like this and that you have the Nvidia Toolkit installed (assuming you are using GPUs). If you're not using nvidia just remove --runtime=nvidia --gpus all. docker run -it --runtime=nvidia --gpus all ubuntu bash These works for most images li........
  • How to Configure NVIDIA GPUs with Docker on Ubuntu: A Comprehensive Guide for AI Deep Learning CUDA Solution


    Welcome to our in-depth guide on configuring NVIDIA GPUs with Docker on Ubuntu. This post is tailored for developers, data scientists, and IT professionals who are looking to leverage the power of NVIDIA's GPU acceleration within Docker containers. Whether you're working on machine lea........
  • Linux Ubuntu Mint how to check nameservers when /etc/resolv.conf disabled solution


    You'll notice that /etc/resolv.conf contains dire warners on most Linux Desktops. # This file is managed by man:systemd-resolved(8). Do not edit. # # This is a dynamic resolv.conf file for connecting local clients to the # internal DNS stub resolver of systemd-resolved. This file lists all # configured search domains. # # Run "resolvectl status" to see details about the uplink DNS servers # currently in use........
  • Linux How To Upgrade To The Latest Kernel Debian Mint Ubuntu


    How to check what kernel version you have/currently running? uname -rm 5.4.0-91-generic x86_64 The above shows us that we are running 5.4.0-91-generic on the x86_64 architecture. The safest way is to stick with the same flavor eg if you're on generic, and say on kernel 5.4.0 then it makes sense to follow what is below. However, if you are migrating or dual booting between newer hardware (eg. you got a........
  • Linux How To echo as root solution to use tee permission denied solution Ubuntu Debian Mint Redhat CentOS


    The issue is when you need to echo something as root/sudo, that it doesn't work. You can never do a sudo echo to an output file as you'd expect. Take an example to clear out wasted RAM buffers/cache like this: sudo echo 1 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches -bash: /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches: Permission denied The solution is to run tee as sudo/root What we do is echo 1, but then pipe it to the "tee" command as sudo........
  • Linux swapping too much? How to check the swappiness and stop swapping


    We could always disable swap but this would normally be a bad idea unless you have an incredible amount of RAM and a workload that will never exceed it. However, for live/containerized and high performance environments it could be desirable. Another middle ground may be to set swappiness to a lower number. You may also want to clear your kernel's cache, which could be eating up RAM unnecessarily by c........
  • How To Add Multiple SSH Keys Ubuntu Mint Linux Debian Redhat


    By default if you create a private key for SSH, it will create something like .ssh/id_rsa Linux will always search for and offer this key when connecting to servers. If you put extra keys in your .ssh directory like id_rsa_realtechtalk.com, they will be ignored by default and NOT used or offered (you can verify this with ssh -v) and see it is not being offered. Here is how you add the extra SSH keys so they are all offered: #this gives........
  • ecryptfs how to change default mount location from Private Ubuntu Debian Centos How


    In a lot of distros like Debian, ecryptfs will mount itself in /home/yourusername/Private This is controlled by Private.mnt which may contain the mount path like this: /home/yourusername/Private Change the default mount location of ecryptfs by modifying this file: home/.ecryptfs/yourusername/.ecryptfs/Private.mnt After you unmount and relogin, you should find ecryptfs is now mo........
  • How to upgrade to the latest Python version on Linux Ubuntu Debian Mint 3.11


    A lot of developers want to go to 3.11 because of the speed improvements, but most distros never have the latest Python version. Using the deadsnakes third party repo is the easiest way aside from compiling it yourself (which is safer and recommended): Step 1 - Add the repo apt-add-repository ppa:deadsnakes/ppa If you get an error about requests then install it:........
  • add bridge failed: Package not installed Linux Bridge Not working Ubuntu Mint Debian solution


    If you get this error in your logs: add bridge failed: Package not installed This error normally means one of two things. 1.) Is your brctl (bridge-utils) installed? On Mint/Debian check for "brctl". If it's not there do sudo apt install bridge-utils uml-utilities 2.) Is your bridge.ko (bridge kernel module loaded?). On some installs I have seen that you cannot modpro........
  • python3 error Ubuntu Linux error solution SyntaxError: invalid syntax line 12 pip{sys.version_info.major}


    This sort of thing normally happens your python3 or pip3 has been updated, because you have to in order to use pip, but the newer pip now breaks compatibility with your old python (3.5 in this case). There are a few solutions, the easiest is perhaps to upgrade to a newer OS with a newer distro provided Python 3 or to manually install a newer version of Python/OR use a PPA like deadsnakes that provides newer versions. ........
  • -bash: expr: command not found Linux Debian Mint Ubuntu


    If you get this error, it's usually because you don't have coreutils installed. -bash: expr: command not found Install coreutils and you'll be good: apt-get -y install coreutils........
  • How to remove metadata from pdf on Linux Ubuntu


    Install exiftool: apt install exiftool Remove the metadata from "thefile.pdf": exiftool -all= thefile.pdf Warning: [minor] ExifTool PDF edits are reversible. Deleted tags may be recovered! - thefile.pdf 1 image files updated Metadata, in the context of PDFs, refers to a set of data that describes and gives informat........
  • How to install and configure haproxy on Linux Ubuntu Debian


    haproxy is one of the best known and widely used Open Source load balancers out there and a strong competitor to nginx. haproxy is used by many large sites per Wikipedia: HAProxy is used by a number of high-profile websites including GoDaddy, GitHub,........
  • Linux Ubuntu Mint Gnome keyboard Typing not working in certain application or window solution


    This is a weird issue in Mint Ubuntu gnome that I've only seen on one system. It may happen in your terminal or your browser but one program will just refuse to allow input from the keyboard. I am not sure if it's some weird fluke on a strange keyboard by perhaps accidentally hitting a weird key combination. In some windows the keyboard gets weird and only / and Esc seem to work. / brings up quick find and sometimes Esc will close it........
  • talib/_ta_lib.c:747:10: fatal error: ta-lib/ta_defs.h: No such file or directory


    If you are installing ta-lib for Python and get this error then you can normally solve it by manually getting the ta-lib source files and compiling. tar -zxvf ta-lib-0.4.0-src.tar.gz cd ta-lib;./configure;make;make install Collecting ta-lib Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/39/6f/6acaee2eac6afb2cc6a2adcb294080577f9983fbd2726395b9047c4e13ec/TA-Lib-0.4.26.tar.gz (272kB) &nbs........
  • PXE-E23 Error BOOTx64.EFI GRUB booting is 0 bytes tftp pxe dhcp solution NBP filesize is 0 Bytes


    Be very careful about what filename you specify in dhcpd.conf if you get an error like this: NBP filesize is 0 Bytes PXE-E23:Client received TFTP error from server. If you specify "BOOTx64.efi" then the file had better not be called "BOOTx64.EFI" as it is case sensitive. It's really a case of th........
  • vagrant install on Debian Mint Ubuntu Linux RHEL Quick Setup Guide Tutorial


    1 - Install Vagrant apt install vagrant Make sure you have a supported Virtualization tool like Virtualbox or VMWare, Hyper-V etc.. It automatically detects and uses what you have. Virtualbox has a lot of support here with tons of images. 2 - Init Vagrant We'll init to have a Debian 10 box by default to show how quick and easy it is. vagrant init generic/debian10........
  • RHEL 8 CentOS 8, Alma Linux 8, Rocky Linux 8 System Not Booting with RAID or on other servers/computers Solution for dracut and initramfs missing kernel modules


    This seems to have changed for RHEL 8 where a normal dracut to update your initramfs creates a system that only boots for the running kernel. For example if you have Kernel 5 and then chroot into a RHEL 8 variant which uses kernel 4.18, and run dracut, it seems that by default the system will be unbootable. It is also the case that if you move your RAID array or drives to another server that it will be unbootable, because dracut seems to only include modules needed for the curre........
  • How to Upgrade to Debian 11 from Version 8,9,10


    This likely works for even older versions but I have only tested on 8,9,10 (11,12). It's quite impressive at how easy it is to upgrade from a very old version to the new version. I would say that Debian version upgrades are some of the quickest and smoothest of any distro. 1.) Backup your /etc/apt/sources.list cp /etc/apt/sources.list ~ #Get your keys first, you need the latest keys for Debian 11 or it won't work:........
  • Ubuntu Linux Mint Debian Redhat Cannot View Files on Android iPhone USB File Transfer Not Working Solution


    If you plugin your phone to your computer and enable USB File Transfer/Allow on the phone side but the contents of your phone on the computer side are empty in the file manager, you probably don't have mtp-tools.MTP or media transfer protocol is the standard protocol that most phones use to communicate over USB to the computer. Just do this to fix it and get access to your files: apt install mtp-tools After that you should be a........
  • Virtualbox Best Networking Mode In Lab/Work Environment without using NAT Network or Bridged


    Virtualbox is a very powerful tool, but for some use cases it is less than optimal. Say you are in a work, lab or other environment where you are not alone on the physical network and there could be overlap of IPs, but you need all of your VMs to be contactable from your host, VMs need to communicate with each other, and VMs need internet. NAT Network will give you VM to VM communication and internet, however, it is buggy and unstable. It also doesn't allow host to VM co........
  • debootstrap how to install Ubuntu, Mint, Debian install


    In this example we install debian 10 with --variant=minbase which gives us a minimal/tiny install. Don't use variant if you want the full size install. mkdir /tmp/deb10files debootstrap --variant=minbase buster /tmp/deb10files/ Did you get an error? debootstrap --variant=minbase buster /home/theuser/VMs/deb10files/ You'll get this error if you make a directory in your home........
  • How To Restore Partition Table on Running Linux Mint Ubuntu Debian Machine


    Here is an easy way to restore things if you have the starting point and size of each partition using fdisk: In this example we pretend that /dev/sda was wiped out, but the running system still has the info in /sys/class/block/sda Go into each partition and record the "start" and "size" hostdev@box /sys/class/block/sda/sda1 $ cat start 2048 hostdev@box /sys/class/block/sda/sd........
  • Debian Ubuntu apt install stop daemon questions/accept the default action without prompting


    This can be a real pain when automating things and you do an apt install and some packages ask a lot of questions. Make sure you set this variable when running: DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive Remember as well that if chrooting you will want to run like this: DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive apt install -y yourpackagename ........
  • iptables NAT how to enable PPTP in newer Debian/Ubuntu/Mint Kernels Linux


    Remember that control connections are established on port 1723 and then actual data is transferred over GRE protocol 47. If you have a NAT setup this will work without special forwarding or accepting of GRE packets (normally if you are not blocking outgoing connections and accepting established and related connections). The below two commands will get things going so PPTP and GRE work We first load the ip_nat_pptp module which allows PPTP to work with........
  • Linux How to Check Which NIC is Onboard eth0 or eth1 Ubuntu Centos Debian Mint


    So say you happen to have 2 NICs of the exact same chipset, they will generally show up as the same name, with possibly a different revision in lspci. Normally this is not an issue if you have a server with 4 NICs, generally the eth0 to eth3 appears from left to the right (or right to left on some vendors) so it doesn't take much figuring out. Generally if you have different chipsets for different NICs, it should be easy to know which one is eth0 or the first NIC in the OS.........
  • Stop ls in Linux Debian Mint CentOS Ubuntu from applying quotes around filenames and directory names


    Later versions of ls try to be helpful and smart to prevent errors in dealing with files with spaces that were tradtionally a pain. However if you need the raw/real filenames, this can break scripts or if you are pasting into a csv etc.... How do you make ls not add the quotes? Add the capital "-N" switch ls -N You could also add an alias to make it more permanent Do this to add it to ~/........
  • Ubuntu Debian Mint Linux How To Update Initramfs Manually update-initramfs


    The easiest way for the current running kernel is: update-initramfs -u -k `uname -r` You could change -k to a specific kernel name if for some reason the current is not running (eg. if you are chrooted or in recovery mode). If you want to update all kernels then use "-k all" update-initramfs -k all -u update-initramfs: Generating /boot/initrd.img-5.4.0-162-generic........
  • Enable Turbo Mode for CPU Ubuntu Linux Mint Debian Redhat


    Sometimes due to your BIOS/EFI you may find that you have chosen "Energy Efficient" for your CPU which may effectively disable turbo mode. This is because "Energy Efficient" will often restrict or throttle your CPU to the base speed. This can impact nearly any CPU such as Intel's, AMDs, Opteron, Xeon etc... This is of course frustrating, for example if you have a CPU that is 2.0GHz base speed but turbo to 2.5GHz, you will never hit more than 2GHz.........
  • RTL8812BU and RTL8822BU Linux Driver Ubuntu Setup Archer T3U Plus


    PCIID 2357:0138 First install your kernel headers/source: sudo apt install linux-headers-`uname -r` 1.) Clone this git repo git clone https://github.com/morrownr/88x2bu-20210702 2.) Run the install cd 88x2bu-20210702 ./install-driver.sh 3.) Load the driver mod........
  • grub blank screen how to manually boot kernel and initrd Linux Ubuntu Debian Centos won't boot solution


    You probably didn't do an "update-grub" and grub no longer has any proper menu entries, but before you can fix it let's try to get grub booting anyway. If you get this lovely black grub screen here's how you can get things booting. In my case I have a gpt partition with partition 1 and 2. Partion 1 is just my EFI / ESPand partion 2 /dev/sda2 is my root which includes /boot. You will have to adjust this if you had a separate /boot partition.........
  • Cisco Switch / Router How To Restore Factory Default Settings


    1.) Make sure your conf register is 0x2102 Do show version and at the very end of the output you will see the Configuration register. show version Configuration register is 0x2102 If the config register is not 0x2102 then enter this command: r1#configure terminal r1(config)#config-register 0x2102 r1(config)#end 2.) Let's Erase the NVRAM/flash........
  • How To Install convert MBR Legacy booting GRUB to EFI from a non-EFI Linux Environment Ubuntu Mint Debian


    1.) Create your EFI/ESP Partition If you happen to have some free space on the drive already then this is easy, just create a new partition of at least 100M. The nice thing about the EFI spec is that it must just be in the first 2.2TB of space so for most users, it means you can simply resize the last partition(downsize it by 100M) and then add an EFI partition at the end. For example if you had this partition scheme: /dev/sda1 = /........
  • GRUB error: invalid arch-independent ELF magic. Solution How To Fix Linux Centos Ubuntu Mint


    I've seen this bizarrely happen on a newly partitioned and custom installed Linux install, particularly if you did not properly unmount before rebooting. You can find reports of it happening on various How to fix the error: invalid arch-independent ELF magic. You need to boot into Live/Rescue mode, chroot into your OS properly and then do a grub-install on each drive that nee........
  • How to find out which package a file belongs to in Debian Mint Ubuntu Linux


    To find which package a file is from just pass it the path to the file in question, whether it's a config file or binary, you'll find your answer (assuming it does belong to a package of course). Just use dpkg -S /path/to/yourfile How To Find Which Package The File Belongs To in Debian Mint Ubuntu Linux eg. dpkg -S /usr/bin/xed xed: /usr/bin/xed dpkg -S /etc/pam.conf libpam-runtime........
  • Loaded: masked (Reason: Unit hostapd.service is masked.) Solution in Linux Debian Mint Ubuntu


    If you are getting this error from systemctl "Loaded: masked (Reason: Unit hostapd.service is masked.)" we need to unmask the service. Solution systemctl unmask hostapd Removed /etc/systemd/system/hostapd.service. It's fixed root@routerOS:/var/log# systemctl start hostapd root@routerOS:/var/log# systemctl status hostapd ● hostapd.service - Access point and authentication server for Wi-Fi and Ethern........
  • Linux Mint Ubuntu Ubiquity Installer Bug EFI Installed To Wrong Partition Solution


    Just an FYI that the installer ignores your selection of Boot Loader, as it was intended for MBR/Legacy. The installer horribly, even when choosing "Something Else" and manually partitioning and creating an EFIin your install drive, will still install grub to the first EFI partition it finds, even if you are following a guide like this to avoid wiping out the M........
  • ecryptfs How To Backup / Migrate Linux Mint Ubuntu Debian system ecryptfs properly and restore access


    In this scenario, let's say you want to clone your OS at the filesystem level and the source system (the system you want to clone from) is in use. Doing a blind rsync / is a big problem because it uses twice as much space for no reason. The reason for this is that with ecryptfs you have a /home/.ecryptfs directory which has the actual encrypted versions of your files and folders. However your home directory (eg. /home/someuser) is mounted. Doing the blind rsync will ca........
  • i915 nouveau Nvidia GPU not starting lightdm Xorg failing solution for Could not determine valid watermarks for inherited state


    It may appear to be an Xorg or lightdm/gdm/mdm error but in reality for many users with this issue, it's a driver conflict and issue. I had a system that had two GPUs, an Intel and Nvidia GPU. The only thing that got it working was to remove the nouveau driver and blacklist it so it never came back, then the Intel GPU works fine without these issues. Solution sudo rmmod nouveau add nouveau/other driver to blacklist edit th........
  • Debian Mint Ubuntu Howto Disable Network Manager


    NetworkManager is normally good for GUI users who may not be good with manually confguring devices, but if you are using things like bridging and bonding, it will often break things. How To Disable NetworkManager systemctl disable NetworkManager Now that it's disabled you will need to stop NetworkManager. NetworkManager will still be running until you reboot next or manually stop it. How To Stop NetworkManager systemctl stop........
  • amdgpu AMD GPU Xorg Won't Start [3576284.324] (EE) Segmentation fault at address 0x0 [3576284.325] (EE) Fatal server error: [3576284.325] (EE) Caught signal 11 (Segmentation fault). Server aborting


    Here is how Ifixed it on a Mint/Ubuntu install 1.) First download the latest AMDGPU-Pro driver from here: https://www.amd.com/en/support Navigate to your relevant video card: 2.) Download the installer One issue is that by default they give you a version for the latest version of........
  • symbol 'grub_calloc' not found grub boot error solution / fix


    I've encountered this after upgrading some Debian/Ubuntu/Mint based systems for no explicable reason, although there are some bug trackers on Ubuntu that document this: https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/grub2/+bug/1889509 The short end of the solution is that you need to properly reinstall grub. 1.) Boot from a LiveCD 2.) Mount your root / filesystem and don't forget to mo........
  • /var/log/journal huge/too large solution in Debian Mint Ubuntu Linux Howot Fix


    Is your /var/log/journal overweight and bloated? For example a decent install of Debian 11 with most applications and services ends up being about 4.9G with the journal taking a few gigs. du -hs /var/log/journal/ 1.3G /var/log/journal/ By default in a lot of distributions there is no maximum size so it will keep growing. This is especially problematic for embedded distributions and devices, but is also a huge waste of sp........
  • RTL8821AU Setup Configure Wifi Realtek 8821 in Linux Debian Mint Ubuntu Howto


    The easiest way for the 8821AU Realtek Wifi chipset / TP-Link T2U Plus: Bus 002 Device 003: ID 2357:0120 TP-Link Archer T2U PLUS [RTL8821AU] First install your kernel headers/source/other required tools: sudo apt install linux-headers-`uname -r` make gcc bc Clone this github repo with the driver: git clone https://github.com/morrownr/8821au-20210708 Run the compile/ins........
  • How To Tell Which Repository a Package Comes From Debian Mint Ubuntu


    Just use apt-cache policy to find the repo of a package: apt-cache policy lxd lxd: Installed: 3.0.3-0ubuntu1~18.04.2 Candidate: 3.0.3-0ubuntu1~18.04.2 Version table: *** 3.0.3-0ubuntu1~18.04.2 500 500 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/main amd64 Packages &nb........
  • How To Reload All Kernel Modules And List Required Moduels for Each Device - Linux Mint Debian Ubuntu Troubleshooting


    One easy way is to use lspci -k like this: sudo lspci -k|grep modules|sort -nr|uniq Kernel modules: snd_hda_intel Kernel modules: shpchp Kernel modules: pata_acpi Kernel modules: nvidiafb, nouveau, nvidia_drm, nvidia Kernel modules: mei_me Kernel modules: lpc_ich Kernel module........
  • Debian Ubuntu Mint How To Change Default Display Manager


    The display manager is more so what controls the main graphical login process after Debian/Mint/Ubuntu boot and controls the graphical login sequence. Once you login, you are then usually passed to an Xorg based Window manager like XFCE, Mate, Ubuntu etc... Popular display managers are mdm, gdm, lightdm etc... and they all basically do the same thing with a different interface/style and some feature differences. In Mint for example the normal default display manager is l........
  • Ubuntu Mint Debian Howto Execute Command / Script / Program Upon Wakeup From Sleep


    Sometimes manual intervention on various Linux system's, including Debian, is required to fix things after waking up from sleep. One persistent issue is the sound system / pulseaudio needing to be reset and not working until you do that after waking up. It's not clear if it's an OS issue itself or the sound driver, but this will fix things. Where do we put scripts or commands that need to be used upon wakeup automatically? /lib/systemd/syst........
  • Linux Debian Mint Ubuntu How To Add Non-Free Repositories and Contrib


    You just add on "non-free" at the end of each repo, like the example below: If you wanted contributed packages then you could also add "non-free contrib" to each repo line. Don't forget to do an "apt update" to see the new packages, this is especially handy for getting more drivers for devices with the firmware-linux-nonfr........
  • Debian Ubuntu Mint DHCP dhclient quits and how to make it persistent if first attempt to get DHCP lease fails


    Debian based OS's have a similar issue as the behavior in RHEL/CentOS dhclient, which is that if you have an interface that relies on DHCP, if the first attempt fails, it will quit and stop. This is a problem especially if you are using your Linux as a router or something else mission critical, but where the internet for some reason may have been down or the DHCP server it gets a lease from broken. The expected behavior you would hope is that when things are back online that the........
  • LightDM Mint Ubuntu Debian won't start errors Nvidia Graphics


    This error implies that there may be an issue with Xorg or maybe your NVIDIA GPU cannot start or initialize: 35 laptop kernel: [ 2031.857704] nvidia: loading out-of-tree module taints kernel. 35 laptop kernel: [ 2031.857724] nvidia: module license 'NVIDIA' taints kernel. 35 laptop kernel: [ 2031.857725] Disabling lock debugging due to kernel taint 35 laptop kernel: [ 2031.873280] nvidia: module verification failed: signature a........
  • WARNING: Unable to determine the path to install the libglvnd EGL vendor library config files. Check that you have pkg-config and the libglvnd development libraries installed, or specify a path with --glvnd-egl-config-path. Linux Ubuntu Mint Debian E


    If you get an error like this when installing the Nvidia drivers: WARNING: Unable to determine the path to install the libglvnd EGL vendor library config files. Check that you have pkg-config and the libglvnd development libraries installed, or specify a path with --glvnd-egl-config-path. Just install these packages: &nbs........
  • How To Do Linux Network Bonding Teaming in Mint Debian Ubuntu


    Bonding is an excellent way to get both increased redundancy and throughput. It is similar to the "Network Teaming" feature in Windows. There are a few different modes but we will use mode 6, I think it's the best of both worlds, as it is not just a failover, but it provides round robin, so you will get redundancy and load balancing. So if you have a 1G single port, you will have a combined throughput of 4G at this point. Just bear in mind that the true thr........
  • LXC Containers LXD How to Install and Configure Tutorial Ubuntu Debian Mint


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    This is only really necessary in the case you don't want DHCP. If you are dealing with an encrypted LUKS server on the internet, you will often want to have a static IP so you know which IP to connect to (or if you have a semi-static IP assigned by DHCP). SET IP Address by /etc/initramfs-tools/initramfs.conf IP Address=192.168.1.27 Gateway=192.168.1.1 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0 Hostname=myhome.com IP=192.1........
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    Nov 29 20:17:58 ubuntu kernel: [ 1157.180789] md: md1 stopped. Nov 29 20:17:58 ubuntu kernel: [ 1157.180829] md0: unknown partition table filesystem not responding/reading properly with du or rsync (this needed an fsck). [ 2571.489217] EXT3-fs error (device md2): ext3_lookup: deleted inode referenced: 35923106 [ 2571.942299] EXT3-fs error (device md2): ext3_lookup: deleted inode referenced: 35923110 [ 2571.9568........
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    The most basic is the start menu, which is accessed with Alt+F1........
  • Shutdown/Power/Halt In Debian/Ubuntu/Centos Guide Systems Doesn't Work


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    I successfully created a single RAID 1 partition which includes /boot inside it and my root directory through the Debian installer. It said GRUB installed successfully but when I try booting the OS it seems GRUB can't read anything. When trying to boot from GRUB GRUB Loading stage 1.5. GRUB loading, please wait... Error 2 I get "Error 2" when trying to boot Debian. I also notice from a LiveCD that........
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  • SSH Automatic/Passwordless Logon - Setup Public Key Encryption In Single Command


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  • Seagate Drive 500GB Drive Dying


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    The folder I was trying to archive is about 72GB, but much like rsync at about 17GB it chokes because of the filesize. What's with so many common and essential Linux tools having such limitations? I guess it is likely that the authors never wrote their code with the idea that files would be so large but it's still very annoying. It's important to stay on top of these limitations on production servers because I didn't realize what happened until I checked the file with "........
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    Upgrade Release Kernel TipsThis is for CentOS 3.1 to 3.8 but the methodology will apply everywhere. I ran into a problem first of all with a non-booting system after running #yum update centos-release It took me to 3.8 and upgraded all the other packages [b:7e931c835d]BUT[/b:7e931c835d] because of some stupid flags enabled in /etc/yum.conf the KERNEL WASN'T UPGRADED SO AFTER BOOTING, WELL IT DIDN'T BOOT OF COURSE :) H........
  • Roxio/Sonic complaints - No verification of burnt ISO Image


    Roxio/Sonic complaints - No verification of burnt ISO ImageThe only thing Nero does better is that it has the option to verify the data written from an ISO/CD Image! Why can't all burning utilities have this feature?........
  • Linux Unix Xorg X Server Intel Extreme i810 Graphics Problem


    Linux Unix Xorg X Server Intel Extreme i810 Graphics Problem(EE) I810(0): No Video BIOS modes for chosen depth. (EE) Screen(s) found, but none have a usable configuration. I have a new Dell PC with one of the latest Intel Extreme Graphics on-board crap. From what I can see any Linux/Unix/FreeBSD versions running XFree86 or Xorg from years ago or the latest version today will have this problem. It's easily corrected FOR MOST people. Go into your........
  • Time for new RAM!


    Time for new RAM!Has anyone seen RAM is damn cheap now? My PC is like 5 years old so it's time to rebuild!........
  • DVD Burners and Media at an all time low


    DVD Burners and Media at an all time lowThis is crazy you can buy a nice Pioneer DVD burner for like $64 CAD now and good media like 50PC Maxell is just $25.97 at Walmart. I'm liking this. Time to make double archives of important data :)........
  • FreeBSD detected my burners as normal CD-ROMs


    FreeBSD detected my burners as normal CD-ROMsDoes anyone know how to fix this?Having the same issue here .....I'll let you know once I solve it :)........
  • Windows Media Player


    Windows Media PlayerJust one little question... and I'm not too sure if it falls into the hardware category... my Windows Media Player...or any music program for that matter buzzes at random and cuts out the music. But I don't think it's the music files themselves because I've put in regular CD's and have had the same problems. Any ideas on what the problem could be?Sounds like a soundcard/driver issue. I would recommend updating your soundcard driver i........
  • Linux Kernel Error (2.6.33.1) BUG: Bad page state in process swapper - Keeps rebooting - initramfs bug


    *This is a bug with initramfs support, all kernels after around 2.6.27.54 suffer from this problem. If you try to include initramfs into your kernel (I mean actually building your binaries into the kernel) this will always happen. Obviously some code has changed in recent kernels that is present in all new kernels, it makes it impossible to boot I've tried the latest 2.6.32, 2.6.33, 2.6.34, 2.6.35, 2.6.36, 2.6.37, 2.6.38 kernels and they all do this. I found one bug re........
  • Debian/Ubuntu/Kubuntu Bash/Console/Terminal/Putty Home and End Keys Don't Work or Produce a ~


    This is a very weird, annoying and bizarre quirk with many distributions, especially Debian. The home and end keys don't work, but it's a simple fix as long as you found this article :) You just have to edit /etc/inputrc: Find the commented lines as shown below: # "e[1~": beginning-of-line # "e[4~": end-of-line *If you can't find the above, just copy and paste the code below into your inputrc, it will en........
  • Enable/Disable PHP Warnings/Logs and Errors from .htaccess with Apache


    Put what you see below into your .htaccessand it will enable errors and notices. (change on to off and 1 to 0 to disable though) php_flag display_startup_errors on php_flag display_errors on php_flag html_errors on Now you'll be able to see errors and notices but this should really only be used for debugging purposes and only temporarily as it can be a security issue since errors can reveal information you wouldn't want hacker........
  • Create/Enable SSL Certificates for Apache on Linux/Unix Systems eg. Redhat,Centos,Debian


    Shortcut/Easiest Way To Create A Self-Signed Key: openssl req -new -x509 -nodes -days 1530 -out server.crt -keyout server.key Using the above, you instantly create a self-signed certificate valid for 1530 days and you can simply skip to step #5.) below. If You Need a Real SSLCertificate (eg. Equifax/Openssl) then you need to create a CSR request (you'll need to follow Steps 1.) and 2.) in order to create the CSR. You then upload the CSR Certi........
  • iPhone Enable Tethering Manually Update ipcc Carrier Settings/Update via SSH


    Everyone says there is a "manual" way of doing it and then they tell you to use iTunes, but if you're like me, you're travelling on business in a foreign country and your laptop does not have iTunes and you don't have a way of getting it and/or don't want it. For this example I'm using the provider "du" in Dubai, UAE (United Arab Emirates) but this method works for virtually all providers. The requirements in this case to truly "manually update........
  • How to avoid web content hijacking/copying/Force content to be accessed by only 1 domain name


    This is something that happens a lot and it is very dirty, as you probably know each site is hosted on a certain IP address. Sometimes a domain is hosted by a single IP address and the IP address defaults to this very same domain. This means that if someone buys domain abcd.com and enters your IP address (the one of your website) as the A record, your content will show up on their domain as if it was their own. There is an easy way to prevent this by using .htacces........
  • Unixbench Score with Glusterfs/Openvz & Quad Core Xeon - Updated with GlusterFS 2.0.8 & Optimized Client Config


    The results are still not flattering and are nothing close to native performance. Unless GlusterFS has a "DRBD-like" option to delay writes over the network and to only read from the client side, I don't see how performance can ever improve much more. After doing some client optimizations Iadded more to the score: Start Benchmark Run: Sun Nov 29 00:37:44 PST 2009 00:37:44 up 3 min, 1 user, load average: 0.01........
  • Clustered/Distributed Network Filesystems, Which Ones live up to the hype?


    I've tried to find a good sensible solution to cluster with and each technology has it's pros and cons and there is no perfect solution and I've found a lot of "exaggerations" in the applications, benefits and performance of these different filesystems. DRBD I first started off with DRBD and Ihave to say it does live up to the hype, is quite reliable (although it can be annoying to match up the kernel module and user applications since they must match and whe........
  • Unixbench Score with Glusterfs/Openvz & Quad Core Xeon - Updated with GlusterFS 2.0.8


    You might remember my original GluserFS/OpenVZ benchmark which produced a horrible 29.8 This is the exact same system, but using the latest 2.0.8 (with some small files patch which speeds up performance) you can see it is about 25% faster. I also haven't tuned my config files at all, but there are some settings that should increase performance on small files which I believe i........
  • yum error not working rpmdb: mmap: No such device TypeError: rpmdb open failed


    Loaded plugins: fastestmirror rpmdb: mmap: No such device error: db4 error(19) from dbenv->open: No such device error: cannot open Packages index using db3 - No such device (19) error: cannot open Packages database in /var/lib/rpm Traceback (most recent call last): File "/usr/bin/yum", line 29, in ? yummain.user_main(sys.argv[1:], exit_code=True) File "/usr/share/yum-cli/yummain.py&qu........
  • Unixbench Score with Glusterfs/Openvz & Quad Core Xeon


    This is very disappointing since GlusterFS markets itself as a solution to deploy VPS servers on. On the HNitself I get a Unixbench of about 360. I'm also using an SSH tunnel to secure the communications, but even before that, things seemed very slow. # # # # # # # #####&n........
  • Linux/Unix Open SSH Login Without Password Key Exchange including Debian, Redhat, Fedora, Ubuntu, BSD etc..


    In those 4 simple commands you can setup mutual key exchange between two sshservers by using a single login shell session and single window. *Just change the IP address examples of (10.10.0.2) to the target of your mutual key exchange. It doesn't matter if the server is on a LANor WAN(well unless the server is behind a firewall and you cannot SSHinto it).........
  • Timezone Change/Updated for Linux/Unix Debian/Fedora/Ubuntu/Centos Change Update Time zone


    In Newer Linux Distros This Way Is Easiest and works on newer versions like Ubuntu, Mint, Fedora, Centos, Debian etc. #if you are missing timedatectl this in newer distros like Ubuntu/Mint/Debian and are using a container like Docker then do "apt install systemd" timedatectl set-timezone America/Vancouver Replace the America/Vancouver with the correct timezone. To see the list you can just type "timedatectl set........
  • sudo: Error dropping capabilities, aborting in Linux Centos 5.3


    For some reason Ikeep getting this error when trying to run a sudo command eg: sudo -u someuser somecommand sudo: Error dropping capabilities, aborting My version of sudo is:sudo-1.6.9p17-3.el5_3.1 and I've heard that version 1.7 fixes everything. The only thing is yum does not think sudo has any update. Iguess the new version has not been committed to the RPM repository yet. This is really a huge and ann........
  • Have an OpenVZ VPS/Linux Virtual Private Server and nothing works right?


    A VPS Server I had just wasn't working right, code that I migrated there just wasn't working. For example, it kept telling me the connection to the database was unsuccessful, halfway through iterating through results it already had. Then I realized it wasn't my code. Ichecked my /proc/user_beancounters and found this: cat /proc/user_beancounters Version: 2.5 uid resource held maxheld barrier limit failcnt........
  • Bash Script/Linux/Unix HTML/XML Parser


    There is a tool called "xml2" which will parse both HTML and XML scripts, this is very useful to do a mass extraction or conversion of data based on say an HTML table etc.. It becomes even more powerful using bash if certain tags are identified with a certain class="" attribute or something else unique to only the tags you want. Happy parsing.........
  • iPhone 3GS Jailbreak Information & Benefits


    Truly, the only way to unleash the capabilities and customization abilities of iPhone are to jailbreak, it's not just for hackers anymore. A few days ago someone by the named of "geohot" released a single click application called "purplera1n", which does the entire operation smoothly and seamlessly. In our case, the first time it went as far as "done, wait for reboot" on our Windows machine and for minutes we waited and saw the pic on the iPhone w........
  • Using a Mac OSX DMG Image in Windows and Converting to Standard ISO Format use dmg2iso


    The dmg format is silly and annoying to work with, why couldn't Apple stick with the .iso standard? Anyway, there's an excellent Linux and Windows based tool to convert it back to a normal .iso Image called dmg2iso I'll only cover theLinux version although the Windows pre-built binary works the same way. Download dmg2iso here for free (from the author's website) It's just silly and doesn't make sense that Ubuntu doe........
  • RTL8111/8168B R8169 Gigabit Link slow speeds


    This is the Intel Atom 330 motherboard with integrated Realtek Gigabit NIC (Intel Desktop Board D945GCLF2 Motherboard W/ Atom 330 1.6 GHz Dual Core Processor - Mini-ITX) I cannot achieve more than 15 MB/s, even doing a local transfer through eth0 to it's own IP. 100% 95MB 15.9MB/s 00:06 So this is not a cabling, switch or hardware issue, it seems like a driver or chipset limitation problem. Here is my........
  • SSH Slow Login even with SSHD UseDNS no parameter


    Icouldn't understand why on one system it took a few minutes to get the SSHlogin prompt when connecting to other systems. The other systems all had the UseDNS parameter set to no, which almost always resolves the login prompt delay. The reason is Ubuntu and perhaps Debian and other distributions /etc/nsswitch.conf file Edit yours to have the "hosts" line like so (notice that files and dns are the primary resolution choice........
  • mkisofs error "genisoimage: Directories too deep for 'Backup/My Documents/My Music/iTunes/Album Artwork/Local/5928CE9C1AFAC465/07/15' (7) max is 6."


    genisoimage: Directories too deep for 'Backup/My Documents/My Music/iTunes/Album Artwork/Local/5928CE9C1AFAC465/07/15' (7) max is 6. Some people said choosing the --iso-level-4 option will help. I just opted to add the "-D" switch and everything was fine.........
  • SSH Server Slow/Lagged/Delayed Login Response


    This is really something the SSHServer developers should consider. The cause of this annoyance is because of failed DNS lookups on your IPaddress, which is especially common for many dedicated/col-located servers and also computers on internal NAT/private networks. The chances are this is the cause of your SSHSlow/Delayed Login problems. The easy solution to SSH Login Problems Edit /etc/ssh/sshd_config Add this line to disable r........
  • Samba SMB Error - Server not using user level security and no password supplied. tree connect failed: NT_STATUS_WRONG_PASSWORD


    Server not using user level security and no password supplied. tree connect failed: NT_STATUS_WRONG_PASSWORD That happens when trying to use smbclient to connect to a share. The weird thing is that I can authnenticate just fine from Windows XP. It is partially my mistake, I forgot this share does have a password. I've tried authenticating with the correct user and also with "Guest" because this works in Windows. In Linux I ........
  • Configuring OCFS2 Clustered File System on Debian Based Linux including Ubuntu and Kubuntu


    There's a lot of information and guides on OCFS2 for RHELand Centos Linux but the package setup and configuration is slightly different and this has thrown some people off. Installing OC2FS You should install the following packages to get started: apt-get install ocfs2-tools ocfs2console Configure OC2FS In RHEL/Centos the main configuration file is located in /etc/sysconfig/o2cb However in Debian based Linux it is located........
  • LAME MP3 Encoder Segmentation Faults


    This happened on one of my Ubuntu machines where Igot some kind of segfault on line 21 from LAME at random while encoding MP3s (a second try is fine usually). I've read that it's best to compile it from source and that has solved most issues for people. Here is my preferred configure line: ./configure --enable-mp3x --with-fileio=lame --enable-debug --with-vorbis Even with that I got a different error this tim........
  • ENOM Major Outage


    At this time we can't resolve Enom's website and all DNS requests to their 4 primary name servers are failing, although the hostnames themselves still resolve: Name Server: DNS1.NAME-SERVICES.COM Name Server: DNS2.NAME-SERVICES.COM Name Server: DNS3.NAME-SERVICES.COM Name Server: DNS4.NAME-SERVICES.COM Name Server: DNS5.NAME-SERVICES.COM You would really think Enom, bein........
  • Writing/Burning a data CD-R/DVD-R or DVD+RW in Unix/Linux


    There's a lot of outdated information and confusion for system administrator's out there. One annoying task for many an Administrator has been backing up data in Linux. You don't need any GUI tools such as K3B or GnomeBaker. Both are excellent tools but for veteran command line users working remotely, using the keyboard is a great and possibly automated way to save yourself pain and hassle. At a later date we'll cover how scripting can automatically backup certain........
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