• hostapd example configuration for high speed AC on 5GHz using WPA2


    This example is using RTL8821AU chipset from a TP-Link T2U Plus USB adapter and other similar ones should work the same. Here's how to get this chipset RTL8821AU working in Linux. Here's how to get RTL8812 and RTL8822 working in Linux.........
  • Dell Server Workstation iDRAC Dead after Firmware Update Solution R720, R320, R730


    This is certainly a poor design, as you can read many seasoned admins who have updated their iDRAC only to have it killed. One possible cause is not by doing all the incremental updates, doing updates from an old iDRAC to one many revisions newer is a sure way to kill things, but even then there is no guarantee based on the amount of failures. List of threads of people's dead iDRAC's:........
  • Cloned VM/Server/Computer in Linux won't boot and goes to initramfs busybox Solution


    This is mainly for if you've done something silly like trying to clone a Live, running VM image. In this example, the VM initially finds grub and tries to boot but is kicked straight into initramfs rescue mode/busybox right after this. If you've done this "silly" thing, you could have dataloss but a lot of times just using fsck will fix it as you are guaranteed at best to have some corruption and inconsistencies in the filesystem. My theory is that some files wer........
  • How To Add Windows 7 8 10 11 to GRUB Boot List Dual Booting


    Many times just doing an update-grub may find Windows and add it to grub, but a lot of times it won't. Create Windows in a custom grub entry like below: sudo vi /etc/grub.d/40_custom menuentry "Windows 10" { set root='(hd0,0)' chainloader + 1 } Change Windows 10 to whatever you want to call it. For example if it was for Windows 11 you'd probably want to ca........
  • efibootmgr: option requires an argument -- 'd' efibootmgr version 15 grub-install.real: error: efibootmgr failed to register the boot entry: Operation not permitted.


    This sometimes happens when trying to install the EFIversion of grub to a device when you are booted into Legacy/MBR mode. It doesn't seem to occur on all machines, but some and seems somewhat BIOS dependent. grub-install --target=x86_64-efi /dev/sda Installing for x86_64-efi platform. grub-install.real: warning: Couldn't find physical volume `(null)'. Some modules may be missing from core image.. grub-install.real: warning: Couldn't find physica........
  • How to kill a docker swarm


    Assign way more replicas than you have of memory on all nodes and watch the Swarm crash which can easily reproduce in a small VMfor testing. root@Deb11Docker01:~# docker ps CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAM........
  • docker swarm silly issues


    The error below can be caused by a gateway that is unpingable: docker swarm join --token SWMTKN-1-1kogg8da68gtb1j7ezaddowyy9s0an5s9tue758o20k18liskw-5h3f61hrrmv3u6agshvbtcklf 172.16.1.80:2377 Error response from daemon: manager stopped: can't initialize raft node: rpc error: code = Unknown desc = could not connect to prospective new cluster member using its advertised address: rpc error: code = DeadlineExceeded desc = context deadline exceeded........
  • nvidia cannot resume from sleep Comm: nvidia-sleep.sh Tainted: Linux Ubuntu Mint Debian


    This seems to happen in many different drivers but it happened more often in newer versions such as 530 vs 525. Then nvidia-modeset goes to 100% There are many reports of this appearing since driver 4.70 and I can confirm I've seen this in various machines. https://forums.de........
  • How to access a disk with bad superblock Linux Ubuntu Debian Redhat CentOS ext3 ext4


    Have you ever tried mounting a partition that you exists but you get this error? mount: /mnt: can't read superblock on /dev/sda1. The superblock in this example was bad because the physical disk had corruption and bad blocks/sectors. However, the data was generally accessible and you can always try this trick below (with caution and no warranty). This is specifically for filesystems that place superblocks in multiple locations, which........
  • docker error not supported as upperdir failed to start daemon: error initializing graphdriver: driver not supported


    Nov 15 17:00:49 rttbox kernel: overlayfs: filesystem on '/var/lib/docker/overlay2/check-overlayfs-support450709549/upper' not supported as upperdir Nov 15 17:00:49 rttbox dockerd[93755]: failed to start daemon: error initializing graphdriver: driver not supported The above error is often/normally caused because you are trying to run docker out of an unsuitable directory/filesystem. For example if you try to place docker's data inside an existing overl........
  • Migrated Linux Ubuntu Mint not starting services due to broken /var/run and dbus - Failed to connect to bus: No such file or directory solution


    This is a weird issue as sometimes when upgrading or even migrating, this could happen and the reason is simple but maybe not 100% obvious at first. You will find that your GUIdoesn't load and most services fail to start, even logind Here are some errors you may see: Mar 13 22:22:23 rttbox systemd-logind[2892]: Failed to connect to system bus: No such file or directory Mar 13 22:22:23 rttbox systemd-logind........
  • TSC_DEADLINE disabled due to Errata; please update microcode to version: 0x3a (or later) - Linux how to upgrade CPU microcode


    [ 0.206301] [Firmware Bug]: TSC_DEADLINE disabled due to Errata; please update microcode to version: 0x3a (or later) [ 0.430409] MDS: Vulnerable: Clear CPU buffers attempted, no microcode [ 0.430411] MMIO Stale Data: Vulnerable: Clear CPU buffers attempted, no microcode [ 2.980359] microcode: sig=0x306f2, pf=0x1, revision=0x36 [ 2.981621] microcode: Microcode Update Driv........
  • Docker Swarm vs Kubernetes Comparison Guide


    A lot of companies are unsure which solution to choose and many may not be aware of Docker Swarm as an alternative to Kubernetes. One thing that many Sysadmins find is that Docker Swarm is simply easier, quicker to setup and maintain by far than Kubernetes.........
  • When is it time to leave your VPS/VDS Cloud Hosting Provider?


    When Is It Time to Leave Your VPS, VDS, and Dedicated Server Provider? Choosing the right hosting solution—be it Virtu........
  • Postfix / sendmail config for DKIM, SPF and DMARC Tutorial Guide E-mail Delivery for Hotmail.com Gmail.com and More HowTo


    This will be the goto to help solve e-mail delivery issues and talk about many practical issues that happen between developers, admins and scripts that send e-mail and do things that may not be acceptable or cause deliverability problems. Sendmail Stuff Edit /etc/mail/sendmail.mc The problem is that if you send directly out from the server using the mail function, the Return-path of the e-mails will be username@thehostnameoftheserver.com. Let........
  • Install Grafana on Linux Debian Ubuntu Tutorial Guide


    First we need a few extra packages: apt update apt install -y adduser libfontconfig1 musl sudo wget https://dl.grafana.com/enterprise/release/grafana-enterprise_10.3.1_amd64.deb Install / Enable Grafana dpkg -i grafana-enterprise_10.3.1_amd64.deb dpkg -i grafana-enterprise_10.3.1_amd64.deb (Reading database ... 44309 files and directories currently installed.) Preparin........
  • System has not been booted with systemd as init system (PID 1). Can't operate. Failed to talk to init daemon. Ubuntu Debian Linux Solution Cannot reboot


    You are probably using some custom image or maybe this is some sort of container that didn't boot with systemd. The solution is to use "reboot -f" reboot -f This will force the system/OS/VM/container to reboot.........
  • Mint Ubuntu Linux Gnome Showing Home Directory on Desktop instead of Desktop Directory


    During a migration or other custom setup, it's possible you don't have a $HOME/Desktop and as a result the config file that controls this is set to just use your $HOME directory. This is controlled in the file: $HOME/.config/user-dirs.dirs As we can see below, Desktop, Downloads, Music and Pictures are set to $HOME. We can edit any of these as we like. # This file is written by xdg-user-dirs-update # If you want........
  • Linux how to get list of all timezones on system Ubuntu


    find /usr/share/zoneinfo/|sed s#"/usr/share/zoneinfo/"##g|grep "/"|grep -v posix|grep -v ^"Etc/"|grep -v ^right|grep -v ^"SystemV" Africa/Addis_Ababa Africa/Abidjan Africa/Blantyre Africa/Lusaka Africa/Casablanca Africa/Libreville Africa/Asmara Africa/Bujumbura Africa/Dakar Africa/Lagos Africa/Malabo Africa/Harare Africa/Kigali........
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    If you are using a hypervisor to test Proxmox (eg. Vbox) then changing the video card/display adapter can fix it. For example VboxSVGA causes the issue but switching to VMSVGA fixes it. For example VboxSVGA causes the issue but switching to VMSVGA fixes it. ........
  • How To Upgrade Debian 8,9,10 to Debian 12 Bookworm


    Step 1.) Upgrade to Debian 11 first The process to go to Debian 12 is not as smooth as 11, when trying to upgrade from Debian 10. In fact, it doesn't work directly, so you'll first need to follow this guide to update to Debian 11, reboot and come back here if successful. Step 2.) Update sources.list Update your /etc/apt/sources.list like this: deb http://........
  • apache2 httpd apache server will not start [pid 22449:tid 139972160445760] AH00052: child pid 23248 exit signal Aborted (6) solution Mint Debian Ubuntu Redhat


    If you get this error, it is often because you have configured Apache with modules that weren't actually installed. Eg. you try to load the PHPmodule but didn't actually install the apache2 php module, so the server can't start. In general, this error can often be caused by issues with problematic modules and/or Apache being configured for modules that have not actually be installed (eg. libapache2-mod-php) is missing. The above results in this less than obv........
  • How to use the FTDI USB serial cable to RJ45 adapter to connect to the console on Cisco/Juniper Switch Router Firewall in Linux Ubuntu Debian Redhat


    This should work for most console ports of other manufacturers too. It is a quick and simple method for emegencies or deploying a few appliances/devices in a non-standard environment or small environment. However, if this is a route thing, or the equipment is not physically close to you, it would be best to use some sort of "Terminal" server which is an IP connected switch with several serial ports built-in for this purpose. Normally they accessible by web/........
  • How To Setup Python3 in Ubuntu Docker Image for AI Deep Learning


    The issue is that Docker images are stripped down, so many tools and even python3 is missing, so you'll have to build or update the actual image yourself. I assume you have started an image with something like this and that you have the Nvidia Toolkit installed (assuming you are using GPUs). If you're not using nvidia just remove --runtime=nvidia --gpus all. docker run -it --runtime=nvidia --gpus all ubuntu bash These works for most images li........
  • How to Configure NVIDIA GPUs with Docker on Ubuntu: A Comprehensive Guide for AI Deep Learning CUDA Solution


    Welcome to our in-depth guide on configuring NVIDIA GPUs with Docker on Ubuntu. This post is tailored for developers, data scientists, and IT professionals who are looking to leverage the power of NVIDIA's GPU acceleration within Docker containers. Whether you're working on machine lea........
  • ecryptfs how to change default mount location from Private Ubuntu Debian Centos How


    In a lot of distros like Debian, ecryptfs will mount itself in /home/yourusername/Private This is controlled by Private.mnt which may contain the mount path like this: /home/yourusername/Private Change the default mount location of ecryptfs by modifying this file: home/.ecryptfs/yourusername/.ecryptfs/Private.mnt After you unmount and relogin, you should find ecryptfs is now mo........
  • How to upgrade to the latest Python version on Linux Ubuntu Debian Mint 3.11


    A lot of developers want to go to 3.11 because of the speed improvements, but most distros never have the latest Python version. Using the deadsnakes third party repo is the easiest way aside from compiling it yourself (which is safer and recommended): Step 1 - Add the repo apt-add-repository ppa:deadsnakes/ppa If you get an error about requests then install it:........
  • python3 error Ubuntu Linux error solution SyntaxError: invalid syntax line 12 pip{sys.version_info.major}


    This sort of thing normally happens your python3 or pip3 has been updated, because you have to in order to use pip, but the newer pip now breaks compatibility with your old python (3.5 in this case). There are a few solutions, the easiest is perhaps to upgrade to a newer OS with a newer distro provided Python 3 or to manually install a newer version of Python/OR use a PPA like deadsnakes that provides newer versions. ........
  • How to remove metadata from pdf on Linux Ubuntu


    Install exiftool: apt install exiftool Remove the metadata from "thefile.pdf": exiftool -all= thefile.pdf Warning: [minor] ExifTool PDF edits are reversible. Deleted tags may be recovered! - thefile.pdf 1 image files updated Metadata, in the context of PDFs, refers to a set of data that describes and gives informat........
  • How to install and configure haproxy on Linux Ubuntu Debian


    haproxy is one of the best known and widely used Open Source load balancers out there and a strong competitor to nginx. haproxy is used by many large sites per Wikipedia: HAProxy is used by a number of high-profile websites including GoDaddy, GitHub,........
  • talib/_ta_lib.c:747:10: fatal error: ta-lib/ta_defs.h: No such file or directory


    If you are installing ta-lib for Python and get this error then you can normally solve it by manually getting the ta-lib source files and compiling. tar -zxvf ta-lib-0.4.0-src.tar.gz cd ta-lib;./configure;make;make install Collecting ta-lib Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/39/6f/6acaee2eac6afb2cc6a2adcb294080577f9983fbd2726395b9047c4e13ec/TA-Lib-0.4.26.tar.gz (272kB) &nbs........
  • How to install Windows or other OS and then bring to another computer by using a physical drive and Virtual Machine with QEMU


    This has been a tried and true method for Windows because it is finicky with hardware changes without a reinstall (eg BSOD on boot is what happens 9/10 times unless you move to the same hardwar). Surprisingly, if you use a QEMU VM and do a standard install, it has worked in every system I've thrown the drive in afterwards. So the play is this, use a USB SSD, physical SATA drive plugged internally or for convenience, you could use a SATA to USB adapter on another computer to perf........
  • RHEL 8 CentOS 8, Alma Linux 8, Rocky Linux 8 System Not Booting with RAID or on other servers/computers Solution for dracut and initramfs missing kernel modules


    This seems to have changed for RHEL 8 where a normal dracut to update your initramfs creates a system that only boots for the running kernel. For example if you have Kernel 5 and then chroot into a RHEL 8 variant which uses kernel 4.18, and run dracut, it seems that by default the system will be unbootable. It is also the case that if you move your RAID array or drives to another server that it will be unbootable, because dracut seems to only include modules needed for the curre........
  • How to Upgrade to Debian 11 from Version 8,9,10


    This likely works for even older versions but I have only tested on 8,9,10 (11,12). It's quite impressive at how easy it is to upgrade from a very old version to the new version. I would say that Debian version upgrades are some of the quickest and smoothest of any distro. 1.) Backup your /etc/apt/sources.list cp /etc/apt/sources.list ~ #Get your keys first, you need the latest keys for Debian 11 or it won't work:........
  • Virtualbox Best Networking Mode In Lab/Work Environment without using NAT Network or Bridged


    Virtualbox is a very powerful tool, but for some use cases it is less than optimal. Say you are in a work, lab or other environment where you are not alone on the physical network and there could be overlap of IPs, but you need all of your VMs to be contactable from your host, VMs need to communicate with each other, and VMs need internet. NAT Network will give you VM to VM communication and internet, however, it is buggy and unstable. It also doesn't allow host to VM co........
  • debootstrap how to install Ubuntu, Mint, Debian install


    In this example we install debian 10 with --variant=minbase which gives us a minimal/tiny install. Don't use variant if you want the full size install. mkdir /tmp/deb10files debootstrap --variant=minbase buster /tmp/deb10files/ Did you get an error? debootstrap --variant=minbase buster /home/theuser/VMs/deb10files/ You'll get this error if you make a directory in your home........
  • Linux grub not using UUID for the root device instead it uses /dev/sda1 or other device name solution


    You can read lots of posts about this issue but there is not much information about why this is the case or how grub determines the root= device name. Some even suggest modifying grub.cfg manually which is a disaster as the next kernel update will cause grub to revert back to the device name. For most people this won't be an issue but those using template system, automated deployments and working in embedded may run into this issue with custom embedded and created minimal kernel........
  • How To Restore Partition Table on Running Linux Mint Ubuntu Debian Machine


    Here is an easy way to restore things if you have the starting point and size of each partition using fdisk: In this example we pretend that /dev/sda was wiped out, but the running system still has the info in /sys/class/block/sda Go into each partition and record the "start" and "size" hostdev@box /sys/class/block/sda/sda1 $ cat start 2048 hostdev@box /sys/class/block/sda/sd........
  • Debian Ubuntu apt install stop daemon questions/accept the default action without prompting


    This can be a real pain when automating things and you do an apt install and some packages ask a lot of questions. Make sure you set this variable when running: DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive Remember as well that if chrooting you will want to run like this: DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive apt install -y yourpackagename ........
  • Linux How to Check Which NIC is Onboard eth0 or eth1 Ubuntu Centos Debian Mint


    So say you happen to have 2 NICs of the exact same chipset, they will generally show up as the same name, with possibly a different revision in lspci. Normally this is not an issue if you have a server with 4 NICs, generally the eth0 to eth3 appears from left to the right (or right to left on some vendors) so it doesn't take much figuring out. Generally if you have different chipsets for different NICs, it should be easy to know which one is eth0 or the first NIC in the OS.........
  • Dell PowerEdge Server iDRAC Remote KVM/IP Default Username, Password Reset and Login Information Solution


    Are you new to the company, datacenter or a third party who is responsible for deploying a fleet of servers from scratch. The first step is to normally login to the KVM so you can perhaps manually reinstall, PXE boot the Cloud Image or reimage/reinstall an OS but you need access to the KVM/IP or what Dell calls iDRAC. It's common that you may have forgotten this information or that another employee or colleague has changed the info and did not tell you, that they have left the........
  • Ubuntu Debian Mint Linux How To Update Initramfs Manually update-initramfs


    The easiest way for the current running kernel is: update-initramfs -u -k `uname -r` You could change -k to a specific kernel name if for some reason the current is not running (eg. if you are chrooted or in recovery mode). If you want to update all kernels then use "-k all" update-initramfs -k all -u update-initramfs: Generating /boot/initrd.img-5.4.0-162-generic........
  • Enable Turbo Mode for CPU Ubuntu Linux Mint Debian Redhat


    Sometimes due to your BIOS/EFI you may find that you have chosen "Energy Efficient" for your CPU which may effectively disable turbo mode. This is because "Energy Efficient" will often restrict or throttle your CPU to the base speed. This can impact nearly any CPU such as Intel's, AMDs, Opteron, Xeon etc... This is of course frustrating, for example if you have a CPU that is 2.0GHz base speed but turbo to 2.5GHz, you will never hit more than 2GHz.........
  • How To Change Storage Location in Docker.io


    It sounds intuitive that you may just move the /var/lib/docker dir to another location and symlink it back but it won't work and you'll get an error. How to move Docker Storage the Correct Way This assumes that you want to use /mnt/raid as the new location. 1.) Stop Docker systemctl stop docker 2.) Move /var/lib/docker mv /var/lib/docker /mnt/raid/ 3.) Edit the Docker daemon file Specify the path you wan........
  • Cisco UC CME How To Enable Licensed Features


    Router#show license Index 1 Feature: ipbasek9 Period left: Life time License Type: Permanent License State: Active, In Use License Count: Non-Counted Lic........
  • grub blank screen how to manually boot kernel and initrd Linux Ubuntu Debian Centos won't boot solution


    You probably didn't do an "update-grub" and grub no longer has any proper menu entries, but before you can fix it let's try to get grub booting anyway. If you get this lovely black grub screen here's how you can get things booting. In my case I have a gpt partition with partition 1 and 2. Partion 1 is just my EFI / ESPand partion 2 /dev/sda2 is my root which includes /boot. You will have to adjust this if you had a separate /boot partition.........
  • How To Install convert MBR Legacy booting GRUB to EFI from a non-EFI Linux Environment Ubuntu Mint Debian


    1.) Create your EFI/ESP Partition If you happen to have some free space on the drive already then this is easy, just create a new partition of at least 100M. The nice thing about the EFI spec is that it must just be in the first 2.2TB of space so for most users, it means you can simply resize the last partition(downsize it by 100M) and then add an EFI partition at the end. For example if you had this partition scheme: /dev/sda1 = /........
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    This article about migrating to a CentOS 7 /8 RAID mdadm array has a lot of info but I wanted to focus specifically on what newer versions of CentOS 7 require to boot mdadm and what changes are necessary on CentOS 7.8+ CentOS 7 / 8 mdadm RAID booting requirements This assumes you are chrooting into an existing install or using it to get a new deployment ready. However, these steps can........
  • Error: Failed to download metadata for repo 'appstream': Cannot prepare internal mirrorlist: No URLs in mirrorlist Solution for Centos8 yum package install error


    Are you getting this error in CentOS 8 when trying to use yum to install a package? Error: Failed to download metadata for repo 'appstream': Cannot prepare internal mirrorlist: No URLs in mirrorlist What we need to do is not use the automatic mirror list and manually set the base URL Solution sed -i 's/mirrorlist/#mirrorlist/g' /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS* sed -i 's%#baseurl=http://mirror.centos.org%baseurl=........
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    cat /proc/mdstat Personalities : [raid1] [raid10] [linear] [multipath] [raid0] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4] md124 : inactive sdj1[0](S) 1048512 blocks Solution, we "run" the array sudo mdadm --manage /dev/md124 --run mdadm: started array /dev/md/0_0........
  • Loaded: masked (Reason: Unit hostapd.service is masked.) Solution in Linux Debian Mint Ubuntu


    If you are getting this error from systemctl "Loaded: masked (Reason: Unit hostapd.service is masked.)" we need to unmask the service. Solution systemctl unmask hostapd Removed /etc/systemd/system/hostapd.service. It's fixed root@routerOS:/var/log# systemctl start hostapd root@routerOS:/var/log# systemctl status hostapd ● hostapd.service - Access point and authentication server for Wi-Fi and Ethern........
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    It may appear to be an Xorg or lightdm/gdm/mdm error but in reality for many users with this issue, it's a driver conflict and issue. I had a system that had two GPUs, an Intel and Nvidia GPU. The only thing that got it working was to remove the nouveau driver and blacklist it so it never came back, then the Intel GPU works fine without these issues. Solution sudo rmmod nouveau add nouveau/other driver to blacklist edit th........
  • br0: received packet on bond0 with own address as source address Linux Solution Mint Debian Redhat CentOS bridge bridging


    A quick fix is to run this command: sudo brctl setageing br0 0 This causes the aging of the MAC address to time out immediately or in 0 seconds, which delete the entry frmo the FDB (Forwarding Database) and causes the error to go away. The default time is 300 seconds or 5 minutes. You can also add it under your br0 definition like this in /etc/network/interfaces to make it permanent and automatic: auto br........
  • amdgpu AMD GPU Xorg Won't Start [3576284.324] (EE) Segmentation fault at address 0x0 [3576284.325] (EE) Fatal server error: [3576284.325] (EE) Caught signal 11 (Segmentation fault). Server aborting


    Here is how Ifixed it on a Mint/Ubuntu install 1.) First download the latest AMDGPU-Pro driver from here: https://www.amd.com/en/support Navigate to your relevant video card: 2.) Download the installer One issue is that by default they give you a version for the latest version of........
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    I've encountered this after upgrading some Debian/Ubuntu/Mint based systems for no explicable reason, although there are some bug trackers on Ubuntu that document this: https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/grub2/+bug/1889509 The short end of the solution is that you need to properly reinstall grub. 1.) Boot from a LiveCD 2.) Mount your root / filesystem and don't forget to mo........
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    Just use apt-cache policy to find the repo of a package: apt-cache policy lxd lxd: Installed: 3.0.3-0ubuntu1~18.04.2 Candidate: 3.0.3-0ubuntu1~18.04.2 Version table: *** 3.0.3-0ubuntu1~18.04.2 500 500 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/main amd64 Packages &nb........
  • How To Reload All Kernel Modules And List Required Moduels for Each Device - Linux Mint Debian Ubuntu Troubleshooting


    One easy way is to use lspci -k like this: sudo lspci -k|grep modules|sort -nr|uniq Kernel modules: snd_hda_intel Kernel modules: shpchp Kernel modules: pata_acpi Kernel modules: nvidiafb, nouveau, nvidia_drm, nvidia Kernel modules: mei_me Kernel modules: lpc_ich Kernel module........
  • Linux Debian Mint Ubuntu How To Add Non-Free Repositories and Contrib


    You just add on "non-free" at the end of each repo, like the example below: If you wanted contributed packages then you could also add "non-free contrib" to each repo line. Don't forget to do an "apt update" to see the new packages, this is especially handy for getting more drivers for devices with the firmware-linux-nonfr........
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    If you get this error when trying to SSHto a device or machine and you never even got a password prompt: Too many authentication failures This means that either the remote side is configured for key auth only, OR your client side may be attempting to auth using mulitple keys, and that exceeds the amount of attempted authorizations on the remote ssh server. If the issue is trying to auth too many times which ssh defaults to sending the keys to, you ca........
  • LightDM Mint Ubuntu Debian won't start errors Nvidia Graphics


    This error implies that there may be an issue with Xorg or maybe your NVIDIA GPU cannot start or initialize: 35 laptop kernel: [ 2031.857704] nvidia: loading out-of-tree module taints kernel. 35 laptop kernel: [ 2031.857724] nvidia: module license 'NVIDIA' taints kernel. 35 laptop kernel: [ 2031.857725] Disabling lock debugging due to kernel taint 35 laptop kernel: [ 2031.873280] nvidia: module verification failed: signature a........
  • How To Upgrade Linux Mint 18.2 to 18.3 to 19.x and 20.x


    Linux Mint offers an easy and painless upgrade path through the last 3 versions, which means no more reinstalling to stay current with the latest version. The only catch is that you need the latest of each version, so for 18, you need 18.3 before you can go to 19, and then 19.3 (or latest), until you go to 20. However, it's really a small price to pay and on the machines we've tested, the upgrade went seamlessly each time (although sometimes video drivers/custom kernel modules l........
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    ID3 2.4 can cause various MP3 players, especially on vehicles or even computers, not to play or at least not to display the ID3 tags. In many cases though, since ID3 2.4 is much different than version 2.3, it will cause some players, especially in cars like Lexus not to play. Even on the computer, you may notice if you check the properties of the MP3 that it won't open or show any details (eg. frequency, bitrate and ID3 tags). One symptom of this in a vehicle (eg. Leuxs,........
  • How To Do Linux Network Bonding Teaming in Mint Debian Ubuntu


    Bonding is an excellent way to get both increased redundancy and throughput. It is similar to the "Network Teaming" feature in Windows. There are a few different modes but we will use mode 6, I think it's the best of both worlds, as it is not just a failover, but it provides round robin, so you will get redundancy and load balancing. So if you have a 1G single port, you will have a combined throughput of 4G at this point. Just bear in mind that the true thr........
  • LXC Containers LXD How to Install and Configure Tutorial Ubuntu Debian Mint


    If you are using mint, delete the preference that stops snap from installing (as it is required for lxc) sudo rm /etc/apt/preferences.d/nosnap.pref 1. Install lxd: sudo apt install lxd Issues install lxd or errors? Click here Debian at this time does not have lxd so you'll need to use snap: sudo apt in........
  • GlusterFS HowTo Tutorial For Distributed Storage in Docker, Kubernetes, LXC, KVM, Proxmox


    This can be used on almost anything, since Gluster is a userspace tool, based on FUSE. This means that all Gluster appears as to any application is just a directory. Applications don't need specific support for Gluster, so long as you can tell the application to use a certain directory for storage. One application can be for redundant and scaled storage, including for within Docker and Kubernetes, LXC, Proxmox, OpenStack, etc or just your image/web/video files or even da........
  • 404 Not Found [IP: 151.101.194.132 80] apt update Debian 11 Bullseye Solution The repository 'http://security.debian.org bullseye/updates Release' does not have a Release file.


    This happens during an apt update and is related to an issue with sources.list, which is particularly troubling, if you are doing a "live-build". P: Configuring file /etc/apt/sources.list Hit:1 http://deb.debian.org/debian bullseye InRelease Get:2 http://deb.debian.org/debian bullseye-updates InRelease [39.4 kB........
  • WARNING: Can't download daily.cvd from db.local.clamav.net freshclam clamav error solution


    freshclam ClamAV update process started at Sun Mar 20 00:30:50 2022 WARNING: Your ClamAV installation is OUTDATED! WARNING: Local version: 0.100.3 Recommended version: 0.103.5 DON'T PANIC! Read https://www.clamav.net/documents/upgrading-clamav main.cld is up to date (version: 62, sigs: 6647427, f-level: 90, builder: sigmgr) WARNING: getpatch: Can't download daily-26337.cdiff from db.local.clamav.net WARNING:........
  • (firefox:9562): LIBDBUSMENU-GLIB-WARNING **: Unable to get session bus: Failed to execute child process "dbus-launch" (No such file or directory) Solution


    (firefox:9562): LIBDBUSMENU-GLIB-WARNING **: Unable to get session bus: Failed to execute child process "dbus-launch" (No such file or directory) ExceptionHandler::GenerateDump cloned child 9743 ExceptionHandler::WaitForContinueSignal waiting for continue signal... ExceptionHandler::SendContinueSignalToChild sent continue signal to child [Parent 9562, Gecko_IOThread] WARNING: pipe error (40): Connection reset by peer: file /build/firefox-EymEXX/fire........
  • Debian Mint Ubuntu Which Package Provides missing top, ps and w Solution


    Install procps and it will install the other packages you need: apt install procps Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done The following additional packages will be installed: libgpm2 libncurses6 libprocps7 lsb-base psmisc Suggested packages: gpm The following NEW packages will be ins........
  • Vbox Virtualbox DNS NAT Network Mode NOT working


    There is a random bug that sometimes occurs with Vbox NAT mode DNS, although it has never happened in the past and Vbox was working fine until recently. The symptom is that you can see it does get an IP+ DNS from the Vbox NAT DHCP. Below we use resolvectl dns and verify the DNS server is set to 10.0.2.3 which is the DNS from Vbox NAT. We can ping it but it does not respond to any DNS requests when we use dig @10.0.2.3 realtechtalk.com........
  • Docker Tutorial HowTo Install Docker, Use and Create Docker Container Images Clustering Swarm Mode Monitoring Service Hosting Provider


    The Best Docker Tutorial for Beginners We quickly explain the basic Docker concepts and show you how to do the most common tasks from starting your first container, to making custom images, a Docker Swarm Cluster Tutorial, docker compose and Docker buildfiles.........
  • How To Create OpenVPN Server for Secure Remote Corporate Access in Linux Debian/Mint/Ubuntu with client public key authentication


    Why choose OpenVPN instead of a firewall appliance? OpenVPN can be a reliable and easy replacement for traditional hardware or just be an additional tool that your company uses so that the firewall can focus on its job rather than acting as a VPNappliance at the same time. When comparing OpenVPN with traditional firewal........
  • HongKong VPS Server, Cloud, Dedicated Server, Co-Location, Datacenter The Best Guide on Hong Kong, China Internet IT/Computing


    In our 2024 VPS Server/Cloud Buyer's Guide, we place the location of your VPS/hosting/server as one of the priorities that is often overlooked. 2024 Update - Datacent........
  • Package wget is not available, but is referred to by another package. This may mean that the package is missing, has been obsoleted, or is only available from another source. E: Package 'wget' has no installation candidate. Solution


    These types of errors are normally caused by misconfiguration of your /etc/apt/sources.list. In this example on Debian 10, if you didn't complete the install correctly, you will have no repos enabled and only rely on CDROM. "Package wget is not available, but is referred to by another package. This may mean that the package is missing, has been obsoleted, or is only available from another source. E: Package 'wget' ha........
  • tag#4 FAILED Result: hostbyte=DID_OK driverbyte=DRIVER_SENSE tag#4 Sense Key : Illegal Request [current] res 40/00:b4:98:02:00/00:00:00:00:00/40 Emask 0x10 (ATA bus error) solution


    You might assume you have a bad drive or the SATA interface/cable is bad, or the power supply is bad/weak to the drive. These are all possible issues, but definitely check your SATA cable for "twisting". It is a big issue because until the error stops or times out, your system will not boot (in my case this was the case even though the drive with the issue was not part of the OS or booting process at all). If you run an open rig that you move around often that ha........
  • Wazuh / OSSEC Install and Configuration Howto Tutorial Guide for Monitoring Agents SIEM


    How To Install Wazuh Server / Quickest Installation Wazuh (forked from the well known OSSEC project) is a full SIEM (Security Information Event Management) that works extremely well with the platforms it natively supports as an "Agent", which allows you to do scans of everything such as all processes running, CVE vulnerability check, incident reporting etc... Prerequisites: A lot of issues with Wazuh seem to be caused by i........
  • Linux Debian How To Enable Sudo/Sudoers for User "User not in sudoers file" Solution


    If you get an error that you aren't in the sudoers file, this typically means that your user is not designated as an admin with sudo privileges. In plain English, when it comes to some OS's like Debian including 10,11 etc.., by default the user is created without special privileges which is contrary to how Ubuntu/Mint handle the secondary user. Let's check the sudoers file to see the problem.........
  • Ansible Tutorial - Playbook How To Install From Scratch and Deploy LAMP + Wordpress on Remote Server


    1. Let's work from an environment where we can install Ansible on. If you are using an older version of Linux based on Mint 18 or Ubuntu 16, you may want to get the PPA and get the latest version of Ansible that way: sudo apt install gpg sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ansible/ansible sudo apt update........
  • Ceph Install Errors on Proxmox / How To Fix Solution


    This normally happens when you interrupt the install of Ceph: pveceph install update available package list start installation Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree... Done Reading state information... Done gdisk is already the newest version (1.0.6-1.1). ceph-common is already the newest version (15.2.15-pve1). ceph-fuse is already the newest version (15.2.15-pve1). Some package........
  • Proxmox Update Error https://enterprise.proxmox.com/debian/pve bullseye InRelease 401 Unauthorized [IP: 144.217.225.162 443]


    Are you getting this error in Proxmox while trying to apt update or install Ceph? apt update Hit:1 http://security.debian.org bullseye-security InRelease Err:2 https://enterprise.proxmox.com/debian/pve bullseye InRelease 401 Unauthorized [IP: 144.217.225.162 443] Hit:3 http://ftp.hk.debian.org/debian bullseye InRelease ........
  • Proxmox How To Enable Ceph Distributed Storage Cluster with OSD and Pools


    How To Install Ceph If you stopped an install of Ceph midway you will need to manually restart it with "pveceph install" Remember that your VM needs to have working internet (gateway) and DNS in order to connect to the apt repo to download all of the packages that Ceph requires. Remember to repeat these steps for each node that you want Ceph on. ........
  • pulseaudio issue on QEMU/KVM guest VM when microphone is replugged/unplugged pulseaudio: pa_threaded_mainloop_lock failed pulseaudio: Reason: Invalid argument


    Here is the scenario, you are using QEMU/KVM and are using something like the AC97 sound driver to pass the host audio to the guest via pulseaudio. This is useful because you can transparently pass your mic input from the host which means you can mute your microphone from the host, which prevents the guest from receiving any mic input even if unmuted. Mute / Unmute Fix This issue also seems to happen even if you press the mute button on the microphone and then unmute,........
  • Proxmox Services Won't Start Failed to start The Proxmox VE cluster filesystem. Proxmox VE firewall. PVE Status Daemon. Proxmox VE scheduler. PVE Cluster HA Resource Manager Daemon. PVE Local HA Resource Manager Daemon.


    There are many reasons why Proxmox services may not start, but one common one, is if you have changed your /etc/hostname or /etc/hosts and don't have a valid FQDN (eg. proxmox01 instead proxmox01.com). Failed to start The Proxmox VE cluster filesystem. Failed to start Proxmox VE firewall. Failed to start PVE Status Daemon. Failed to start Proxmox VE scheduler. Failed to start PVE Cluster HA Resource Manager Daemon. Failed to star........
  • Linux Ubuntu Debian Centos Mint - How To Check if Intel VT-x or AMD-V Hardware Virtualization is Enabled?


    From the terminal do this: cat /proc/cpuinfo|grep -E "svm|vmx" You should get output like this(svm = AMD-v and vmx=Intel-VTx): flags : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush dts acpi mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht tm pbe syscall nx pdpe1gb rdtscp lm constant_tsc arch_perfmon pebs bts rep_good nopl xtopology nonstop_tsc cpuid aperfmperf pni pclmulqd........
  • Linux Mint 20 cannot install snapd missing solution


    The Linux Mint team has disabled it by setting an apt preference, you can edit or just remove the file: sudo apt install snapd Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done Package snapd is not available, but is referred to by another package. This may mean that the package is missing, has been obsoleted, or is only available from another source........
  • How to install Kubernetes with microk8s and deploy apps on Debian/Mint/Ubuntu Linux


    Kubernetes Easy Beginners Tutorial/Architecture Guide Kubernetes is known as container orchestration and we should start at explaining the container part of it. A Container is what runs the actual application and based on an Image, and are more comparable to something like an LXC Container, Virtuozzo/OpenVZ using the Linux Kernel Namespaces feature. Containers run these images as independent, isolated operating environments under the O........
  • Cisco Switch Howto Reset Password


    This was done on a 2900 but applies to all the switches of the same era. Step 1 - Power Cycle and enter recovery mode If you have physical access you can power cycle and hold the mode button down for 15 seconds. After that the SYS light will flash on the switch and you will see the following screenshot. If you don't have physical access (eg. it is a datacenter swich over console only) then power cycle and hit "Ctrl+Pause/B........
  • SSH cannot connect to old servers/devices/switches/routers/Cisco/Juniper Unable to negotiate with 192.168.20.2 port 22: no matching key exchange method found. Their offer: diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha1,diffie-hellman-group14-sha1,diffie-hell


    A lot of older devices either support telnet or very old SSH keyx algorithms which are insecure and disabled by all newer/modern SSH clients for security reasons. However, sometimes you may be on a LAN via VPNor some other secured network or for whatever reason, absolutely, need to connect to this device and sometimes old/embedded devices may not be possible to update to a newer SSH server. If you run into this you may be using a modern/newer SSH client and get thi........
  • VirtualBox VBox Nat Network Handing Out Wrong IP Address Subnet Solution


    This seems to be an ongoing issue that is still reproducable in the latest Ubuntu Vbox 6.x. The default NAT Network range is usually 10.0.2.0/24. If you change this range it does not seem to work properly. Say we change the range to 10.50.1.0/24 If you get a new lease you will find that you get an IP from the old range but the default gateway is from the new range. ........
  • Linux can't boot/grub boot loader screen with no options solution


    Usually if you get the grub boot loader and it doesn't show any boot options, it's because grub was not installed correctly and/or the partition that it is supposed to be on has changed or does not exist. It can also happen if you install Linux to one drive, but the boot loader to another by accident, whether EFI or MBR/Legacy mode. You can normally fix your booting/bootloader/MBR/EFI it by chrooting into your root partition: #become root sudo su........
  • EFI PXE grub2 Howto guide for Linux EFI PXE Booting on Debian, Mint, Ubuntu, RHEL


    Just a quick note and warning is that if you are testing to see if EFIPXE booting works on a VM, MAKE SURE it actually works. For example Iinitially tested using my Distro's QEMU 2.5+dfsg-5ubuntu10.46 and ovmf BIOS firmware (OVMF supports EFI). However, I found on old versions of QEMU (like 2.5), EFIbooting with GRUB NEVER works so it may appear that you have made a mistake when everything is fine when you boot a physi........
  • Juniper JunOS Command Overview and Howtos Switch, Router, Firewall Tutorial Guide


    Enable "cli" mode equivalent in JunOS cli Configure Mode configure So rather than going to the console on a Cisco switch and typing "enable" and then "conf t", the equivalent in JunOS is "cli" and "configure". How Do You Apply Changes You've Made? You can make all kinds of changes to the switch, but remember they are not........
  • Linux Grub not booting the intended kernel solution in Debian, Mint, Ubuntu how to specify which kernel to boot by default


    Traditionally kernels were numbered starting from 0 but by default the "new style" of grub boot loading considers each subkernel item to be different so if you have 3 entries for 4.40-148 rather than counting for 1. To get the expected behavior let's show this example and how we can boot it We do a grep on menuentry in /boot/grub/grub.cfg to see all of the bootable kernels rather than scrolling through loads of extra entries we don't care about (thou........
  • CentOS 7 8 PXEBoot Netinstall Not Working Solution "Pane is dead "new value non-exisetnt xfs filesystem is not valid as a default fs type"


    The problem seems to be that whatever kernel and initrd you have is tied to an old version of CentOS 7 that is no longer in the current repos of most mirrors. If you were previously able to PXEboot and install CentOS and you are sure your network and tftp are good the problem is that you have an outdated kernel and initramfs that point to a defunct version.........
  • CentOS 6 EOL yum repo won't work Error: Cannot find a valid baseurl for repo: base Solution


    yum update Loaded plugins: fastestmirror Setting up Install Process Determining fastest mirrors YumRepo Error: All mirror URLs are not using ftp, http[s] or file. Eg. Invalid release/repo/arch combination/ removing mirrorlist with no valid mirrors: /var/cache/yum/x86_64/6/base/mirrorlist.txt Error: Cannot find a valid baseurl for repo: base You have mail in /var/spool/mail/root ........
  • CentOS 7 8 yum error Trying other mirror. To address this issue please refer to the below wiki article


    The below appears at first to be a bad mirror DNS error, but if you've ruled that out you just need to clear your broken yum cache and things will be good. yum update Loaded plugins: fastestmirror Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile * base: centos.01link.hk * extras: centos.01link.hk * updates: centos.01link.hk http://mirror.worria.com/centos/7.8.2003/os/x86_64/repodata/repomd.xml: [Errno 14] HTTP Error 404 - Not........
  • Microsoft Teams Linux - Calendar Doesn't Work Missed Meetings!


    Teams for Linux is horribly broken, especially because the calendar doesn't show any meetings so unless you are in the right Team and Channel at the right time, you cannot join your meeting or know there is one. As you can see there is an orange bar to represent the meeting but you cannot click it or it makes a new meeting. For some reason this bug is only present in the Linux app but not in the Android App or from the web calendar. This is a horrible design flaw that ca........
  • Huion and Wacom Tablets How To Install in Linux Mint / Ubuntu and make the stylus work properly


    It took a lot of fiddling to make a Huion Kamvas 13 Pro work in Linux but it simple once you know what to do. Don't bother searching as it is unlkely there is a guide out there that will actually make your tablet work. It mainly comes down to the fact that the hid_uclogic kernel module is buggy or doesn't support MANYof these wacom based/Huion tablets properly. What was happening with me is that Ihad the Kamvas 13 Huion setup as a secondary screen/monitor.&nb........
  • How To Replace Audio Track of Video using ffmpeg


    A very common use case is that you don't want to waste time using a video editor that requires you to open it up and manually import the video clip and audio clip, then manually delete the old audio track and import the video and new audio. That's too much work and time since we don't want to go through the hassle. ffmpeg is our solution, all we have to do is specify 3 variables and we're done! -i Windows2019-Server-Noaudio.mp4 is our in........
  • Linux and Windows Dual Boot Crazy Time Issues


    The problem is that Linux uses UTC and Windows uses the local time from the RTC. This means whenever you boot Linux or Windows and then go back to the other OS, you will find your time is incorrect because of the two different clock modes fighting. This results in very annoying issues when booting between the two because the clock is set based on the different standards once you boot (eg. Linux UTC by default and Windows RTC). For example it may cause issues with fsck and........
  • Linux Mint/Debian/Ubuntu/Centos Installer black grub screen and blank screen after trying to boot installer or main OS


    This happens to a lot of Nvidia users especially users of newer cards like the RTX series. If for example you are trying to boot and install Linux and you get a black and white grub2 screen instead of a nice graphical welcome installer, you probably suffer from this bug. It is normally followed by the user booting and finding they just have a blank/black screen. Here is the quick flow of steps to fix it: If you get a black grub scree........
  • Linux Mint Dual Boot Install Avoid Wiping our your Main C: drive /dev/sda MBR and EFI


    Before you try to install and dual boot it is very important to understand the concept of "what boot mode your BIOS is in" and "what mode you booted the installer to". Then follow the example of Linux Mint (but most Linux installers are very similar)to carefully understand WHERE you are installing your Boot Loader to whether that be MBR or EFI. How Am IBooted? First it's important to check your BIOS to see........
  • apcupsd how to setup and monitor APC UPS units


    It really seems limited in that it can mainly give you the things you would see on the physical unit such as load etc.. wget https://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/apcupsd/apcupsd%20-%20Stable/3.14.14/apcupsd-3.14.14.tar.gz?r=https%3A%2F%2Fsourceforge.net%2Fprojects%2Fapcupsd%2Ffiles%2Flatest%2Fdownload&ts=1598115866 tar -zxvf apcupsd-3.14.14.tar.gz cd apcupsd-3.14.14 [root@somebox apcupsd-3.14.14]# ./conf........
  • How To Password Reset, Recover, Bypass, Remove and Unlock on Windows 10,8,7,Vista,XP,NT,2000,2003,2008,2012,2016,2019 Administrative Login Programs


    If you've come here, don't be embarraassed, working in IT, this is the MOST common computer problem that almost everyone will encounter. The reason why I'm doing this post is because I've seen an increase from colleagues and admins having this problem and many times it's not even your fault. A common scenario is that someone acquires a new or used computer which they weren't given the password for. Fortunately Ihave a detailed list of all the options whether free or pa........
  • mdadm how to stop a check


    Is a mdadm check on your trusty software RAID array happening at the worst time and slowing down your server or NAS? cat /proc/mdstat Personalities : [raid1] [raid10] md127 : active raid10 sdb4[0] sda4[1] 897500672 blocks super 1.2 2 near-copies [2/2] [UU] [==========>..........] check = 50.4% (452485504/897500672) finish=15500.3min speed=478K/sec ........
  • http://vault.centos.org/5.9/os/i386/repodata/filelists.xml.gz: [Errno -1] Metadata file does not match checksum solution


    http://vault.centos.org/5.9/os/i386/repodata/filelists.xml.gz: [Errno -1] Metadata file does not match checksum yum clean all yum makecache yum update........
  • How To Get Started on Ubuntu with gpt-2 OpenAI Text Prediction


    apt install software-properties-common add-apt-repository ppa:deadsnakes/ppa apt update apt install python3-pip apt install python3.7 curl gnupg python3.7-dev git ln -s /usr/bin/python3.7 /usr/bin/python3 pip3 install numpy keras_preprocessing curl https://bazel.build/bazel-release.pub.gpg | sudo apt-key add - echo "deb [arch=amd64] http://storage.googleapis.com/bazel-apt stable jdk1.8" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/bazel........
  • Linux How To Change NIC Name to eth0 instead of enps33 or enp0s25


    Most newer distros inexplicably cause your NIC to have what Icall "random" non-standard name conventions because of systemd. This is a big problem for many people and especially those running servers. Imagine that you have a static IPconfigured for ens33 but then the hard disk is moved to a newer system, the NIC could be anything from ens33 to enp0s1, meaning that manual intervention is required to go and update the NIC config file (eg. /etc/network/interfa........
  • virt-resize: error: libguestfs error: could not create appliance through libvirt.


    This is caused because the user is running as qemu for virt-resize and if qemu does not have privileges to read from the source and write to the destination, it will fail with the below. So either change the uid of qemu or change the ownership of the source and target. Solution: export LIBGUESTFS_BACKEND=direct virt-resize --expand /dev/sda2 /root/kvmtemplates/windows2019-eval-template.img /root/kvmguests/kvmkvmuser4515........
  • Linux Debian Ubuntu How To Install PEPPER Faster and Latest Adobe Flash Player in Firefox


    Just run this apt install command sudo apt install pepperflashplugin-nonfree browser-plugin-freshplayer-pepperflash After this restart your browser and check Adobe's site to verify if your Pepper flash is working and showing at least version 32. https://helpx.adobe.com/flash-player.html As you'll see below it will download the latest version which is currently 32 and this was not possible with the old/crappy deprecated adobe-flash plu........
  • How To Speed Up Linux Ubuntu and Debian Based Computers By Improving CPU Performance and Changing the CPU Governor


    I used to believe that for Desktops especially that the "ondemand" CPUfrequency changing that kernels included with Ubuntu and Debian based distros have would be sufficient for snappy performance. However, you can feel the lack of performance on the fastest computer if you have ondemand. A lot of times even under high load 100% of your CPUfrequency in MHz will not be used. For example a 2.8Ghz CPUmay only run at 1.8MHz or even .9GHz. Now........
  • mdadm: super0.90 cannot open /dev/sdb1: Device or resource busy mdadm: /dev/sdb1 is not suitable for this array.


    mdadm --create /dev/md0 --level 1 --raid-devices 2 /dev/sdb1 missing --metadata=0.90 mdadm: super0.90 cannot open /dev/sdb1: Device or resource busy mdadm: /dev/sdb1 is not suitable for this array. mdadm: create aborted Sometimes running "partprobe" can fix this. Other times it requires a reboot. One other manual thing that can be done is the following to fix it (if dm is using and blocking it):........
  • How To Install NextCloud on Centos 7 and Centos 8


    yum -y install wget unzip wget https://download.nextcloud.com/server/releases/nextcloud-18.0.2.zip unzip nextcloud-18.0.2.zip yum -y install php php-mysqlnd php-json php-zip php-dom php-xml php-libxml php-mbstring php-gd mysql mysql-server Last metadata expiration check: 0:58:02 ago on Fri 13 Mar 2020 02:12:49 PM EDT. Dependencies resolved. ===================================================================........
  • Ubuntu Debian Linux Cannot Install Wine Solution - wine1.6 : Depends: wine1.6-i386 (= 1:1.6.2-0ubuntu14.2) but it is not installable wine1.4 : Depends: wine1.6 but it is not going to be installed


    If you've ever gotten errors like this the solution is simple, you need i386 enabled on your 64-bit install because wine depends on some 32-bit x86 libraries: dpkg --add-architecture i386 apt update apt install wine After that it will install just fine. apt install wine Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done........
  • How To Install python 3.4 3.5 and up on Linux with wine - Working Solution


    This is sure simple if you follow the guide but it took a lot of hacking around to make this work on Debian/Ubuntu! Now before you ask why bother running wine and python, the reason is because Python executables are NOT cross-platform. If you run pyinstaller in Linux, that binary will only run on Linux and the same if you do it in Windows. So it is preferable if you have a single environment that you can create Linux and Windows binaries from rather than running 2 separate........
  • using Xvfb on virtual remote ssh server to have X graphical programs work


    The scenario here is that you have some sort of remote headless Linux server but would like to run some programs on them and get graphical access to them. The problem is that the remote server may be an image or VMwithout any virtual GPU and even if so, it is likely without KDE or Gnome, so there's no real way to do this, unless you follow our guide. Install xvfb apt install xvfb Reading package lists... D........
  • named bind errors - DNSKEY: unable to find a DNSKEY which verifies the DNSKEY RRset and also matches a trusted key for '.'


    Mar 22 13:46:14 box named[31767]: validating @0x7f51bc001550: . DNSKEY: unable to find a DNSKEY which verifies the DNSKEY RRset and also matches a trusted key for '.' Mar 22 13:46:14 box named[31767]: validating @0x7f51bc001550: . DNSKEY: please check the 'trusted-keys' for '.' in named.conf. Mar 22 13:46:14 box named[31767]: error (broken trust chain) resolving './NS/IN': 192.36.148.17#53 One possibility is sometimes that your time is ou........
  • OpenVZ vs LXC DIR mode poor security in LXC


    It is unfortunate that LXC's dir mode is completely insecure and allows way too much information from the host to be seen. I wonder if there will eventually be a way to break into the host filesystem or other container's storage? OpenVZ better security: [root@ev ~]# cat /proc/mdstat cat: /proc/mdstat: No such file or directory /dev/simfs 843G 740G 61G........
  • httpd: Syntax error on line 221 of /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf: Syntax error on line 6 of /etc/httpd/conf.d/php.conf: Cannot load modules/libphp5.so into server: /lib64/libresolv.so.2: symbol __h_errno, version GLIBC_PRIVATE not defined in file libc.s


    httpd: Syntax error on line 221 of /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf: Syntax error on line 6 of /etc/httpd/conf.d/php.conf: Cannot load modules/libphp5.so into server: /lib64/libresolv.so.2: symbol __h_errno, version GLIBC_PRIVATE not defined in file libc.so.6 with link time reference This is usually caused by a mismatch in OpenSSLversion. Interestingly enough a lot of times if it has happened during an update of your system, or after, usually just restarting httpd........
  • MySQL 5.7 on Debian and Ubuntu - How To Reset Root Password


    MySQL on Debian versions is configured differently than the native local MySQL plugin so you will be disappointed when your password on the mysql client fails by default. Here is how you reset the MySQL root password the proper and "working way" #first we gracefully stop mysql sudo systemctl stop mysql; #then we forcefully kill any mysqld process just in case sudo killall -9 mysqld mysqld_safe;........
  • Howto Set Static IP on boot in initramfs for dropbear or other purposes NFS, Linux, Debian, Ubuntu, CentOS


    This is only really necessary in the case you don't want DHCP. If you are dealing with an encrypted LUKS server on the internet, you will often want to have a static IP so you know which IP to connect to (or if you have a semi-static IP assigned by DHCP). SET IP Address by /etc/initramfs-tools/initramfs.conf IP Address=192.168.1.27 Gateway=192.168.1.1 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0 Hostname=myhome.com IP=192.1........
  • Convert and install to LUKS Encrypted Drive Ubuntu 18.04 19.10 Linux Mint and Debian Based Linux


    The reason for doing this is that the installer doesn't seem to work properly for LUKS and the server installer doesn't even support LUKS anymore. When you use the GUI install on Desktop for LUKS it won't boot and will just hang after you enter your password. So the only reliable way is to do it ourselves. 1.) Make a default minimal install of Ubuntu 2.) Have a secondary disk on the server or VM. 3.)........
  • CentOS 8 how to convert to a bootable mdadm RAID software array


    The cool thing here is that we only need 1 drive to make a RAID 10 or RAID 1 array, we just tell the Linux mdadm utility that the other drive is "missing" and we can then add our original drive to the array after booting into our new RAID array. Step#1 Install tools we need yum -y install mdadm rsync Step #2 Create your partitions on the drive that will be our RAID array Here I assume it is /dev........
  • ADATA USB Thumb Drive Issues


    This is the reason that I don't like the new ADATA USB drives such as the UV128/64GB or 128GB drives and other ones that look to be the same style (the green sliding USB connector). They just don't work well from new and never work properly at any point. [ 788.242463] usb 1-1.2: new high-speed USB device number 16 using ehci-pci [ 788.339816] usb 1-1.2: New USB device found, idVendor=125f, idProduct=db8a [ 7........
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    sudo apt-get install zoneminder [sudo] password for one: Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required: libuser-perl python-evince kdebase-apps kwrite unixodbc libgnomeprint2.2-data python-soappy vgabios python-metacity hddtemp python-mediaprof........
  • flypro EEPROM PLCC32 programmer software error "The device ID does not match, whether to continue operating"


    If you get that message it means you have inserted the adapter or device incorrectly. In my case the adapter needed to be at the rear end of the pins and it caused this message. Do not ignore this message as it may appear to work but you will get errors and in reality your chip will not be erased or programmed even if it appears like it is working.........
  • grub cannot install or boot from mdadm RAID 10 array


    root (hd2,1) Filesystem type unknown, partition type 0x83 grub> root (hd2,2) root (hd2,2) Filesystem type is ext2fs, partition type 0x83 grub> setup (hd2) setup (hd2) Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... no Checking if "/grub/stage1" exists... no #weird thing about grub is that the drive you enter is considered hd0 For example when booted fu........
  • mdadm create raid10 array with only 2 drives


    mdadm --create /dev/md1 --level 10 --raid-devices=2 /dev/sdb2 /dev/sdc2 --layout=f2 --metadata=0.90 Note that layout=f2 or layout=n2 is very important as without it you'll get a complaint like this: mdadm --create /dev/md0 --level 10 --raid-devices /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdc1 missing missing mdadm: invalid number of raid devices: /dev/sdb1 It is basically more like a prop........
  • Dell CS24 NV5/NV7 Gigabyte GA-3CESL-RH Motherboard ROM Chip info


    If you remove the white label on the chip (near the CMOS battery) you will find the following details about it: SST 49LF080A 33-4C-NHE It is the PLCC32 type and can be pried and removed safely (but be very careful) with an eye glass flat head screw driver. If you just have a bad flash you may be able to reprogram your original or just buy another one with the part# above and reprogram it. This is great news for people who have bricked th........
  • HP Procurve Switch 2824 CLI Telnet Experience , Guide and Tutorial


    ------------------------------------- ProCurve J4903A Switch 2824 Software revision I.10.77 Copyright (C) 1991-2009 Hewlett-Packard Co. All Rights Reserved. RESTRICTED RIGHTS LEGEND Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is subject to restrictions........
  • rm how to delete a file with -- 2 leading dashes


    rm -- --filename Ironically if the solution is two leading dashes as shown above but this applies for other stubborn file names.........
  • HP XW9400 Motherboard In Desktop Issues


    Fortunately the format is EATX so an EATX case will work and the screw layout is standard. You will need to remove the HEX/TORX screws that are connecting the stock HP standoffs (meant to slide into an HP case). XW9400 Motherboard Issues Size: 12" x 13" Proprietary Power Connector Proprietary CPU Power Connector Proprietary Memory Power Connector Fan connectors are 4 pin so you will need some kind of adapter.........
  • Debian sources.list examples


    Based on this from Debian The 'distribution' can be either the release code name / alias (wheezy, jessie, stretch, sid) or the release class (........
  • Linux CLI command to rip audio CD and encode convert to MP3s


    This command rips the audio tracks to .wav files *I recommend making a new directory with the name of the audio disc first and executing everything from within that directory below. cdparanoia -B Use the lame mp3 encoder to encode each one with this script: *Note that this will encode any other files ending in "cdda.wav" for track in `ls *cdda.wav`; do lame -b 192 $track; done........
  • bash string substitution


    so in this case we have files named like this: track01.cdda.wav.mp3 track06.cdda.wav.mp3 track11.cdda.wav.mp3 track02.cdda.wav.mp3 track07.cdda.wav.mp3 track12.cdda.wav.mp3 track03.cdda.wav.mp3 track08.cdda.wav.mp3 track13.cdda.wav.mp3 track04.cdda.wav.mp3 track09.cdda.wav.mp3 track05.cdda.wav.mp3 track10.cdda.wav.mp3 but we want to rename them so they are like "05.........
  • dir2slideshow Centos rpm requirements


    yum -y install dvdauthor ffmpeg mjpegtools sox bc rpm -ivh dvd-slideshow-0.8.4-2.noarch.rpm Preparing... ########################################### [100%] 1:dvd-slideshow ########################################### [100%] /usr/bin/dir2slideshow: line 553: bc: command not f........
  • Lost connection to MySQL server during query [2013]


    This happened while trying to delete several thousand users from phpBB and basically corrupted the innoDB tables. InnoDB: Page lsn 3 881164362, low 4 bytes of lsn at page end 881164362 InnoDB: Page number (if stored to page already) 86920, InnoDB: space id (if created with >= MySQL-4.1.1 and stored already) 0 InnoDB: Page may be an index page where index id is 700 InnoDB: (index "tid_post_time" of table "phpBBdb2005"."phpbb3_p........
  • bash script linux how to do a wildcard string comparison


    if [[ "$templatesource" == *windows* ]]; then partition=/dev/sda2 fi The * before and after * windows will match this "Ihavelotsofwindowshere" Of we could have used "windows*" and anything that starts with "windows" will be matched etc...........
  • cPanel how to force reinstall rpms and fix packages and other problems caused by updates or duplicate rpms


    If a service is not working and resetting it to defaults is not working and you get bizarre error messages it is probably a broken update and possibly duplicate package. Take in this case "exim" not working even after resetting to defaults. Check for duplicates: rpm -aq|grep exim ........
  • kvm how to add secondary cdrom drive


    This is useful if you are installing Windows and need virtio but of course Windows needs the virtio driver which is on a second iso. This is the line of code you would add to your kvm startup script and then you get this iso as second cdrom you can browse to for your Windows install of virtio driver's or whatever other use you need it for. -drive file=/kvmtemplates/virtio-win-0.1-94.iso,media=cdrom........
  • Linux Kernel EDAC errors EDAC MC0: UE row 0, channel-a= 0 channel-b= 1 labels "-": NON-FATAL recoverable (Branch=0 DRAM-Bank=0 Buffer ID = 0 RDWR=Read RAS=0 CAS=0 NON-FATAL recoverable Err=0x800 (Non-Aliased Uncorrectable Patrol Data ECC))


    I'm not sure why I'm getting these but all memory modules are the exact same and all passed memtest successfully although they are ECC. I've heard that ECC RAM can't be tested as well and the kernel seems to indicate they are non-fatl recoverable errors. I wonder if the BIOS has aggressive RAM timing or maybe the controller or motherboard is bad. [ 12.716515] EDAC MC: Ver: 2.1.0 [ 12.717771] EDAC MC0: Giving out device to........
  • VPN Account Buyers Guide and General Info


    What matters most about VPNproviders in 2024? We are highly suspicious of VERYLARGE VPN providers that have LOW PRICES and HUGE DISCOUNTS. The suspicion is that for those who know what costs are involved to purchase thousands of IPs and servers are not small. At the prices that many of the big mainstream providers offer, it is likely unprofitable or barely profitable. Then, how are those companies making money or is that even the goal? There use........
  • How to install grub on virtio KVM with Linux


    I messed up the bootloader by accident on a standard Centos 6.3 install because I turned the /dev/vda1 boot partition into an mdadm raid 1. This was all done correctly aside from one point Ididn't realize was an issue metadata=00.90 is the only thing that will allow you to boot (otherwise grub won't work and you won't boot). So the next step is rescue mode from a CD right? The problem you will find is that grub does not detect your hard drives, this is Ibelieve is be........
  • OpenVZ vzctl update changes how iptables work - iptables v1.3.5: can't initialize iptables table `nat': Table does not exist (do you need to insmod?) Perhaps iptables or your kernel needs to be upgraded. updated solution


    Are you getting the same old error message even though your iptables settings for OpenVZ are correct? iptables v1.3.5: can't initialize iptables table `nat': Table does not exist (do you need to insmod?) Perhaps iptables or your kernel needs to be upgraded. The reason is because in newer vzctl the old way of setting IPTABLES="" in vz.conf is completely deprecated (I spent some time fiddling wondering why my settings were correct but........
  • Wordpress Plugin manual install how-to


    This is the most secure way since we don't know if using the built-in ftp method of Wordpress is secure (that is do they store, record or transmit the ftp login information to a third party like the NSA?). Upload or wget the plugin and then unzip it from the Wordpress website tot he following path of your wordpress: /yourwordpressinstall/wp-content/plugins Then navigate to the "Plugins" section on the left side o........
  • libguestfs tools howto guide for mounting partitions and managing virtual machine images


    libguestfs tools howto guide for managing virtual machine images. libguestfs-tools aka guestfs tools has a lot of tools that make this very easy for you. You can easily mount partitons from an image with some of the commands below. To mount a partition #mount the kvmuser102821.img image and the /dev/sda1 partition from it to the local directory "mount" guestmount -a kvmuser102821.img -m /dev/sda1 mount ........
  • bash shellshock how to manually patch when there is no update for Centos/Debian/Ubuntu/Fedora


    wget http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/bash/bash-4.3.tar.gz tar xzvf bash-4.3.tar.gz cd bash-4.3/ wget --no-directories --level 1 --recursive http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/bash/bash-4.3-patches/ for patch in `ls bash43-*|grep -v .sig$`; do echo applying "$patch" patch -p0 < $patch done ./configure;make;make install #it will install to /usr/bin/bash but if your bash is somewhere else you need to overwrite the old one.........
  • /usr/libexec/mysqld: The table 'session' is full solution


    First of all if you're getting this error it is a result of extreme database activity. If you aren't expecting it or it doesn't make sense to you 99% of the time this is a database driven script being exploited (some common examples I see often are things like phpBB being hit by dozens, hundreds or thousands of bots making constant DB write requests). The easiest way to identify this is to restart MySQL and then run the third party tool "mtop" and you'll see all........
  • Postfix Errors & Solutions "unprivileged": bad value: "???" - bad transport type:


    Aug 25 16:43:24 evohostingtor postfix/master[19471]: fatal: /etc/postfix/master.cf: line 24: field "unprivileged": bad value: "???" Solution: I had the wrong thick dashes when c&ping (just retype them with your keyboard) Aug 25 16:47:10 mailbox postfix/master[24498]: fatal: /etc/postfix/master.cf: line 25: bad transport type: syslog_name=postfix/auth-cleanup auth-cleanup unix n - - - 0 cleanup #-o syslog_name=postfix/........
  • Postfix how to secure outgoing authenticated e-mails for privacy and hide the IP address, mailer and other things


    The most common solution is to use the /etc/postfix/header_checks but this is a big problem. Why is header_checks a problem? Because it does it to all mail whether incoming or outgoing and whether authenticated or not. We of course want as much header information for incoming as we can get for many reasons but many organizations want to secure and make their mail clients as secure as possible. I adapted this solution to the client's custom config, they are configur........
  • Samsung Galaxy Note Upgrade/Update Experience from 4.0.4 with aftermarket ROMs


    It really seems that 4.4.4 is not ready or stable for the i717 yet and this makes sense since it takes a lot of work/development and testing to get the factory stock ROMs working well. In the end I used the 4.1.2 based Blackstra BlackJelly because it was fast, stable and just works and feels great. The aftermarket support is great but many devs are focussed on adding features and customization that most of us don't want or need rather than getting things smooth and stable.........
  • CPanel Link to all of the command line options


    CPanel says you can access 98% of the functions through CLI which experienced Unix/Linux admins prefer for simplicity and for scripting.  I've never found CPanel easy to use from the admin panel, it seems everything is hard to find and a simple task becomes a series of hunts. So for people like me here's the list: http://cpanel.net/system-administrators/command-line-scrip........
  • Sipura/Linksys VOIP Adapter How to Check your IP Address


    Dial **** Then 110# It will then say what your current IP address is.........
  • Webalizer Error Error: Unable to restore run data (11) Error: Unable to restore run data (11) Solution


    Error: Unable to restore run data (10) Error: Unable to restore run data (11) Ikeep getting this error but so far there is no obvious solution. Sometimes I've had to remove the *.hist files so I'll try that again. *Update This is an ongoing random problem after months of running webalizer it runs into some problem that can only be fixed by removing the following files so it can rebuild the stats (you end up losing p........
  • phpBB create new email hash manually when modifying or adding user manually directly through MySQL


    Many may ask why would you need to do this? When upgrading from phpBB 2 to 3 the conversion does not keep the admin user you create. If your old admin user has an email address associated that no longer works or is accessible this makes it impossible to reset the admin password. Some may just say "I'll just manually edit the e-mail address" but it won't work and phpBB will fail to find that user if you don't update the "user_email_hash" field but how do........
  • drbd 8.3 hard drive failure recovery example


    drbd 8.3 hard drive failure recovery drbdadm attach r0 DRBD module version: 8.3.10 userland version: 8.3.8 you should upgrade your drbd tools! 0: Failure: (119) No valid meta-data signature found. ==> Use 'drbdadm create-md res' to initialize meta-data area. ........
  • mytop install errors


    mytop-1.4-2.el5.rf.noarch from rpmforge has depsolving problems --> Missing Dependency: perl(DBI) is needed by package mytop-1.4-2.el5.rf.noarch (rpmforge) solution: #disabling excludes is required on CPanel type boxes which exclude most updates including perl-DBI yum --disableexcludes=main install perl-DBI mytop-1.4-2.el5.rf.noarch from rpmforge has depsolving problems --> Missing Dependency:........
  • Windows 2019 2016 2012 2008 Server Trial How To Activate & Extend the Trial


    To activate your Windows server trial which gives you 180 days: Start ->Right Click (My Computer). Click "Activate Windows now" To renew your license for 180 days (can be done 6 times): Start -> Type this command: slmgr.vbs -rearm Wait a few minutes until it says it is successful (unless you get that message it has not worked or been done)........
  • The Best NoSQL Solution


    To first start off, there are many misconceptions about NoSQL and especially its strengths and weaknesses. Even the popular NoSQL solution MongoDB is fraught with issues that no one seems to be concerned about aside from a few but there are serious issues with database integrity and verified writes. MySQL was considered dangerous or incomplete at one point without having the transactional safety features of Oracle for example. However the NoSQLimplementations seem........
  • WHMCS Sending Blank E-mails Solution


    After the "latest" update one of our clients asked us to figure out the issue and it turns out it is related to the mail settings. Basically all e-mails were being sent with blank text/no body. The solution Go to "Setup ->General Settings ->Mail" and just click on "Save" and it will work again. Note that this assumes you didn't break things yourself by changing any settings. WHMCS may tell y........
  • How to update Open Office in Ubuntu/Debian if your repository is outdated or no longer supported


    http://sourceforge.net/projects/apacheoo-deb/files/debian/dists/wheezy/main/binary-i386/ To install AOO on your computer, you need to add the following entry to the /etc/apt/sources.list file: deb http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/apacheoo-deb/debian wheezy main sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install openoffice-en* openoffice-brand-writer openoffice-brand-calc openoffice-brand-impress openoffice-brand-base open........
  • drbd won't create device if previous partition is on it Command 'drbdmeta 0 v08 /dev/md160 internal create-md' terminated with exit code 40


    This is what fixed it: [root@box13 ~]# dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/md160 bs=512 count=500 Basically you need to wipe out more than just the 512 byte partition table so 512 bytes * 500 is more than enough to make DRBD happy and think the partition is now empty. The reason this happens is because it gets confused when there is a previous partition with data on the device you are using. root@box13 ~]# d........
  • drbd won't sync 8.3.13 on OpenVZ kernel


    I used the matching 8.3.13 utilities and it didn't work but strangely the newer 8.3.16 which makes DRBD complain works just fine. GIT-hash: 83ca112086600faacab2f157bc5a9324f7bd7f77 build by root@sighted, 2012-10-09 12:47:51  0: cs:SyncSource ro:Secondary/Primary ds:UpToDate/Inconsistent A r-----     ns:0 nr:0 dw:0 dr:0 al:0 bm:0 lo:0 pe:0 ua:0 ap:0 ep:1 wo:b oos:5236960   &am........
  • Wordpress Security Hole, Plug it by manually installing themes and plugins


    It's always bothered me how Wordpress basically forces the user to provide their hosting credentials to install themes and plugins. How do know for sure the data is not being saved, intercepted and being provided backdoor access to the NSA or other agencies or even just being misused by others with access? Here's how to close the security hole above and if you're already given Wordpress your credentials make sure you change everything associated it with it. Eg. change your........
  • LVM Tutorial how to create a Physical Volume (PV), Volume Group (vg), and a Logical Volume (LV) within it


    # first we need a physical volume which we use the pvcreate tool to create # I create mine on /dev/sdb3 pvcreate /dev/sdb3 dev_is_mpath: failed to get device for 8:19 Physical volume "/dev/sdb3" successfully created # pvdisplay shows the newly created volume pvdisplay "/dev/sdb3" is a new physical volume of "1.35 TiB" --- NEW Physical volume --- PV N........
  • Howto Convert Xen Image to KVM


    #count=10000 makes an image of 10000MB make sure your image is at least the same as your existing dd if=/dev/zero of=yourimage.img bs=1M count=10000 # losetup -fv newimage.raw # fdisk -cu /dev/loop0 # kpartx -a /dev/loop0 # dd if= of=/dev/mapper/loop0p1 # e2fsck -f /dev/mapper/loop0p1 # resize2fs /dev/mapper/loop0p1 # a lot of guides tell you to edit /etc/fst........
  • yum error "Error: database disk image is malformed" solution


    yum -y install mathtools Loaded plugins: fastestmirror Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile * base: centos.mirror.rafal.ca * epel: mirror.steadfast.net * extras: mirror.agmn.ca * rpmforge: repoforge.mirror.constant.com * updates: centosb5.centos.org extras ........
  • drbd howto solve splitbrain or WFConnection


    On primary node drbdadm connect all On secondary node drbdadm -- --discard-my-data connect all ........
  • How to view GPT/EFI Windows Partition Table


    fdisk unfortunately can't do this and I'm not sure if there's any updated version that handles it but parted can do it. Here's an example of how to do it: parted /dev/sda print 1 17.4kB 1024MB 1024MB ntfs primary 2 1024MB 16144MB 15120MB ntfs primary /dev/sda1 would be the first partiton /dev/sda2 would be the second partition You can then just access them like any other normal partition.........
  • lvm how to resize and extend a volume


    lvextend -L +10G /dev/kvmvm/w2k8r2evalstandard Extending logical volume w2k8r2evalstandard to 20.00 GiB Logical volume w2k8r2evalstandard successfully resized The above adds 10GB to the logical volume. Of course you must resize the filesystem using other tools to take advantage of the space.........
  • Asterisk VOIP Sipura/Linksys PAP2T Calls Not Being Received Solution


    This problem seemed to happen recently but was likely causing issues before where the phone(s) do not ring. Now there are a few reasons why this can happen especially if your adapter has DND mode enabled (disable it). However that wasn't my issue and Ionly figured it out the other day when by fluke if you're on the phone (making a call) then calls will come in. That's when Ifigured out the solution: This likely app........
  • OpenVZ mismatched kernel and dev when compiling.


    ./configure ./configure: line 91: cd: /lib/modules/2.6.32-042stab084.25/build: No such file or directory Error: kernel version not found. Please make sure your kernel is configured. dr-xr-xr-x. 4 root root 4096 Feb 21 06:13 .. lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 45 Feb 21 06:13 build -> ../../../usr/src/kernels/2.6.32-042stab084.25 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Feb 12 20........
  • Microsoft Updates suddenly stops at 50% downloading solution


    This seems to mainly affect new installs of Windows and especially on XP randomly. There are whole pages dedicated to the subject but none of them have a simple proper solution. They and Microsoft say to use "Microsoft Fix It", the only problem is it requires .NET and many new installs of Windows don't have it by default. The simple solution you asked for Just reboot Windows and that is how Ifixed it.........
  • yum Centos 386 and 64 bit conflict resolution


    This can happen when you install RPMForge or other repos with the wrong architecture and here's how you fix it (simply uninstalling won't usually fix it): solution yum clean all yum -y install openvpn Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, presto Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile * base: mirror.its.sfu.ca * extras: centos.mirror.nexicom.net * rpmforge: mirror.cpsc.ucalgary.ca * up........
  • NVIDIA GeForce GT 610 not working in Linux solution - use older 304.117 driver


    Iused the slightly older "304.117" version and it worked. With the newest version Icouldn't get X to start and kept getting these errors in messages/dmesg. [ 2346.083660] nvidia 0000:01:00.0: irq 44 for MSI/MSI-X [ 2350.608342] NVRM: RmInitAdapter failed! (0x12:0x2b:1831) [ 2350.608354] NVRM: rm_init_adapter failed for device bearing minor number 0 [ 2350.608369] NVRM: nvidia_frontend_open: minor 0, module->open() failed, err........
  • Centos Howto Upgrade to PHP 5.3 from 5.2


    It's not as simple as "yum install" as you can see below and it doesn't stop there. yum install php53 Loaded plugins: fastestmirror Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile * rpmforge: mirror.us.leaseweb.net * extras: centos.mirror.rafal.ca * updates: centos.mirror.nexicom.net * base: centos.mirror.nexicom.net * addons: centos.mirror.nexicom.net Setting up Install Process........
  • What a hdd hard drive and mdadm RAID array failure looks like in Linux


    [3805108.257042] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] 1953525168 512-byte hardware sectors: (1.00 TB/931 GiB) [3805108.257052] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Write Protect is off [3805108.257054] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Mode Sense: 00 3a 00 00 [3805108.257066] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Write cache: enabled, read cache: enabled, doesn't support DPO or FUA [3805108.257083] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] 1953525168 512-byte hardware sectors: (1.00 TB/931 GiB) [3805108.257090] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Write Protect is off........
  • Linux Ubuntu Debian Howto Manually Update/Install Thunderbird


    wget http://download-location sudo tar xjvf thunderbird-24.2.0.tar.bz2 -C /opt ln -s /opt/thunderbird/thunderbird /usr/bin/thunderbird [sudo] password for one: ln: creating symbolic link `/usr/bin/thunderbird': File exists sudo rm /usr/bin/thunderbird ln -s /opt/thunderbird/thunderbird /usr/bin/thunderbird The above is how Idid it, if you don't do it properly you'll find that you are still using the old version (........
  • Linux Ubuntu Debian Howto Manually Update/Install Firefox


    wget http://download-location mv /usr/bin/firefox /usr/bin/firefox-old sudo tar xjvf firefox-26.0.tar.bz2 -C /opt ln -s /opt/firefox/firefox /usr/bin/firefox The above is how Idid it, if you don't do it properly you'll find that you are still using the old version (so verify in About that it is the new version). I've verified the above method works perfectly, it's great if you're using an older version of Linux and need to update the most........
  • DD-WRT Set Static DHCP IP Address For Lease


    Services -> Services "Static Leases" Fill out an empty line: MAC Address Host Name IP Address Those first 3 fields are mandatory, if you miss it then the changes will be lost even if you try to save. Make sure you've d........
  • openssh-server has no installation candidate Debian/Ubuntu Solution


    Idon't know why but some installations don't have this in the database by default. To fix it to an: sudo apt-get update;sudo apt-get install openssh-server and then it will work........
  • Ubuntu/Debian how to update FlashPlayer manually


    Download the latest from Adobe's site and unzip it, enter the directory it creates and type the following: sudo cp libflashlayer.so /usr/lib/adobe-flashplugin/ sudo cp -r usr/* /usr........
  • Update wordpress script


    Requirements: 1.) Enter your root wordpress directory. 2.)Download the latest wordpress.zip to it. #backup your current files just in case cp -a . wp-current-bk`date +%Y%m%d` unzip wordpress-3.7.1.zip rm -rf wp-includes rm -rf wp-admin echo y|cp -a wordpress/wp-includes . echo y|cp -a wordpress/wp-admin . echo y|cp -a wordpress/wp-content/* wp-content echo y|cp wordpress/* .........
  • MySQL Error : Table 'datastore' is read only Error Number : 1036 solution


    This happens because of a permissions or ownership issue. Generally /var/lib/mysql should be all owned by mysql.mysql (check that). To fix it use chown -R mysql.mysql /var/lib/mysql Also make sure the files are at least readable and writable by mysql (eg. 700).........
  • Migrate Linux Mint OS from one drive to another


    mount -o bind /proc /sda2/proc mount -o bind /dev/ /sda2/dev mount -o bind /sys /sda2/sys chroot /sda2 mint / # mount -o bind /proc /sda2/proc mint / # mount -o bind /dev/ /sda2/dev mint / # mount -o bind /sys /sda2/sys mint / # chroot /sda2 mint / # cd ~ mint ~ # ls Desktop mint ~ # cd / mint / # ls bin Desktop dev-temp home&nb........
  • Openvz OOM Centos Issue Memory Config Settings Solution


    Linux box13. 2.6.32-042stab076.5 #1 SMP Mon Mar 18 20:41:34 MSK 2013 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux even setting privvmpages to a specific setting DOES not affect "free -m" in containers. This is probably a kernel issue 23:36:29 up 159 days, 7:12, 4 users, load average: 0.42, 0.44, 0.33 [root@box13 ~]# free -m total&n........
  • Sipura / Linksys PAP/VOIP/SIP Adapter Issue Can't receiving incoming phone calls and you're behind a NAT router (99% of people)? solution


    Sipura / Linksys PAP/VOIP/SIP Adapter Issue Can't receiving incoming phone calls and you're behind a NAT router (99% of people)? 1. Login to the adapter. 2. Click on "Advanced" (location varies but usually somewhere on top) 2. Click on "SIP" 3. Scroll down to "NAT" (usually at the bottom). You'll find 2 columns with 4 rows of drop-down boxes (they'........
  • mdadm: Cannot open /dev/sda1: Device or resource busy


    This was caused by some weird dmraid setup which kind of takes control of drives even if they're blank/unused. 1. Check the table. dmsetup table ddf1_44656c6c202020201000006010281f0b3f5195b77cf86172: 0 3905945600 linear 8:0 0 ddf1_44656c6c202020201000006010281f0b3f5195b77cf86172p3: 0 37124096 linear 253:0 284547072 ddf1_44656c6c202020201000006010281f0b3f5195b77cf86172p2: 0 283496448 linear 253:0 1050624 ddf1_44656c6c2020202010........
  • mdadm how to add additional RAID 1 drives


    This is a great way to upgrade your RAID array or move it/copy it to a new set of hard drives. Eg. you have a current RAID 1 array on older/slower drives. Just add at least 1 of the new drives to the array, update grub/install it and then boot into it. Then you have a transparent data migration that is fully synchronized. mdadm --grow /dev/md126 --raid-devices 3 md127 : active raid1 sdc1........
  • guestmount to mount a disk image


    guestmount -a yourimage.img -m /dev/sda1 --ro /mountpoint Change "yourimage.img"to the actual disk image. Change "/dev/sda1" to the device on the disk image you want to mount. --ro is specified only if you don't want write access (good to ensure you don't mess anything up if you just want to recover data).........
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  • ERROR! MySQL manager or server PID file could not be found! ERROR! Manager of pid-file quit without updating file.


    I found the cause of this issue was from all the diskspace being used but clearing it was not enough. Iguess the tables became inconsistent when space ran out and myisamchk is what fixed the rest. service mysqld restart ERROR! MySQL manager or server PID file could not be found! ....................................................................................... ERROR! Manager of pid-file quit without updating file. se........
  • VMWare bridged adapter not working: The network bridge on device vmnet0 is not running. The virtual machine will not be able to communicate with the host or with other machines on your network. Failed to connect virtual device Ethernet1.


    VMWare bridged adapter not working: Message from system: The network bridge on device vmnet0 is not running. The virtual machine will not be able to communicate with the host or with other machines on your network. Failed to connect virtual device Ethernet1. I'm not sure how to fix this but one of the issues is that my eth0 became eth1 after moving my hard drives to a new motherboard. I have run the vmware-config.pl but this did not resolve the issue.........
  • mysql backup/dump all databases with mysqldump command


    mysqldump --all-databases > allDB.sql The above dumps ALL the mysql databases to "allDB.sql". If you want to compress with gzip you could do this instead: mysqldump --all-databases > gzip > ALLDB.sql.gz........
  • Installing Webmin & Enabling SSL


    Webmin Setup Centos 5: wget http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/webadmin/webmin/1.530/webmin-1.530-1.noarch.rpm?r=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.webmin.com%2Fstandard.html&ts=1294339690&use_mirror=surfnet [1] 24229 [2] 24230 [root@host ~]# --2011-01-06 21:48:20-- http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/webadmin/webmin/1.530/webmin-1.530-1.noarch.rpm?r=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.webmin.com%2Fstandard.html Resolving downloads.sourceforge.net... 216.34.181.........
  • crontab/cronjob running multiple times at the wrong time


    crontab not working It is running as user Apache I've tried 0 0 * * * (which means midnight 00:00) and it does run at midnight but also 13:25 for some reason? 25 0 * * * with this it runs at 00:25 but again also at 13:25 Solution - Restart the Cron Service (especially if you changed your time/timezone) *Update I had a suspicion that changing the timezone a few weeks ago caused this. I restarted lhe cron service and the problem h........
  • mdadm Centos 5 automatic resync


    This made me nervous but it's clearly a cronjob based on the messages log that happens every Sunday at about 4:22. I actually can't find any evidence of it in cron.d cron.daily but it is there somewhere obviously. What I don't get is why doesn't this cronjob do a datacheck like Ubuntu's cronscript does? When you unnecessarily rebuild the array you lose your redundancy during that point which makes your data extremely vulnerable. *Update I did a grep of &q........
  • SSH delay problem UseDNS and disabling GSSAPI does not help


    The normal solution doesn't help or apply here: ssh -v user@192.168.5.41 OpenSSH_4.3p2 Debian-9etch3, OpenSSL 0.9.8c 05 Sep 2006 debug1: Reading configuration data /etc/ssh/ssh_config debug1: Applying options for * debug1: Connecting to 192.168.5.41 [192.168.5.41] port 22. debug1: Connection established. debug1: permanently_set_uid: 0/0 debug1: identity file /root/.ssh/identity type -1 debug1: i........
  • ntpdate[30630]: no servers can be used, exiting


    You're not supposed to call ntpdate like that, it's part of the server and needs a bunch of different arguments. The chances are if your time is out of sync and you installed ntpd, you need to start the ntpd service.........
  • mdadm/md-check how to check array integrity without rebuilding


    This doesn't seem to be widely known (maybe it's in some documentation that none of us read though)but there's an easy way to check the integrity of any mdadm array: sudo echo check > /sys/block/md0/md/sync_action -bash: /sys/block/md0/md/sync_action: Permission denied sudo will never work, this only works as root since echo is not actually a binary/command. It is built-into bash. /sys/devices/virtu........
  • Cygwin and crontab backups via ssh/scp/rsync


    Install the "Editors" and "Net" groups that will give you rsync, ssh, ssh-keygen and cron. The trickiest thing that I keep forgetting about each time is you have to run "cron-config" which adds the cron service to Windows, and without doing that obviously no cron jobs will be run thus making automatic backups impossible. Warning about rsync/cygwin and using the -a archive switch. It's a good thing I caught this because it doesn't work ri........
  • md: data-check of RAID array md3


    This really made me nervous but notice the mdstat says "check". This is because in Ubuntu there is a scheduled mdadm cronscript that runs everyday on Sunday at 00:57 that checks your entire array. This is a good way because it prevents gradual but unnoticed data corruption which Inever thought of. As long as the check completes properly you have peace of mind knowing that your data integretiy is assured and that your hard drives are functioning properly (I'........
  • WD EARS Advanced Format Can't be fixed?


    There's no partial WD EARS alignment fix: I had data on /dev/sda3 and /dev/sdb3 (RAID1) so I couldn't edit that one. I thought I'd be smart and try fixing the first two partitions so I set the first one starting at sector 2048 and then +8 for the second partition. This has really slowed the performance down worse than it ever was! Disk /dev/sda: 2000.4 GB, 2000398934016 bytes 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 243201 cylinders, tot........
  • rhythmbox & ecryptfs segfault crash


    It seems nearly anything can make rhythmbox crash, I've always found it buggy. This crash seems to be something related to ecryptfs but it's hard to say. After re-opening rhythmbox so it sits in the Gnome panel/tray, and letting it load/find all of my songs let's it work again. If I show it too soon (I wait 10-15 minutes for everything to scan first) then it will crash over and over. [171938.995645] ecryptfs_read_and_validate_header_region: Error........
  • vmare server - Cannot open the disk '/mnt/sda4/vmware/Debian/hdd.vmdk' or one of the snapshot disks it depends on. Reason: Failed to lock the file.


    Go into the directory for your Virtual Machine and delete all ".lck" directories. rm -rf *.lck After that your server should boot.........
  • mdadm: metadata format 00.90 unknown, ignored.


    mdadm: metadata format 00.90 unknown, ignored. This happens with various versions of older mdadm such as mdadm - v2.6.7.1 - 15th October 2008 It is all because an extra 0 in 00.90 in /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf that it doesn't like (it doesn't seem to cause any problem except that message though): Solution - Edit your /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf and change 00.90 to 0.90 in your arrays: ARRAY /dev/md3 level=raid1 num-devices=2 metadata=0.90 UUID=f41a4644:6b2a05f........
  • Ubuntu/Debian DRBD 8.0 Setup Guide


    I've only used it on Centos, soI thought I'd make a quick Debian guide: Install the DRBD Package apt-get install drbd8-utils Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required: libswfdec-0.8-0 Use 'apt-get autoremove' to remove them. The following........
  • yum in Centos 5/Xen halts and exits suddenly


    yum exits in the middle The problem is this VPS seems to be an OpenVZ template from HyperVM. The only way to make it work was to disable i386 packages since this was an x64 kernel. That shouldn't be necessary but it was the only way to make yum stop quitting after the first package or two. I couldn't find any issue by checking the logs either. echo y|yum install vim-minimal telnet expect jwhois net-tools slocate iptables elinks gawk L........
  • WD EARS/Green 2TB Cannot Disable Power Saving/Head Parking with hdparm


    hdparm -B 255 /dev/sdb /dev/sdb: setting Advanced Power Management level to disabled HDIO_DRIVE_CMD failed: Input/output error The one thing you can do though is to set hdparm spindown time lower (it doesn't seem to work that well). -S set standby (spindown) timeout hdparm -S 251 /dev/sda /dev/sda: setti........
  • mdadm RAID 1 adventures


    I separated the 2 drives in the RAID 1 array. 1 is the old one /dev/sda and is out of date, while the separated other one /dev/sdc was in another drive and mounted and used with more data (updated). I wonder how mdadm will handle this: usb-storage: device scan complete md: md127 stopped. md: bind md: md127: raid array is not clean -- starting background reconstruction raid1: raid set md127 active with 1 out of 2 m........
  • WD (Western Digital) Advanced Format Drive Lagged/Slow Speed/Performance/Design Flaw EAD/EARS problem WDC WD20EARS-00S8B1


    Let the numbers speak for themselves, from what I read the Load_Cycle_Count which is very high (more than 500,000/half a million times) is the number of head parks. What a stupid"Green" design and design flaw which will probably mean an early life for the drive. This is almost as silly as Seagate's new reputation for BSY/poor quality disks since the 7200.11 series. To make it worse this is also when Western Digital introduced "Advanced Format" o........
  • mdadm won't boot due to fsck error


    Nov 29 20:17:58 ubuntu kernel: [ 1157.180789] md: md1 stopped. Nov 29 20:17:58 ubuntu kernel: [ 1157.180829] md0: unknown partition table filesystem not responding/reading properly with du or rsync (this needed an fsck). [ 2571.489217] EXT3-fs error (device md2): ext3_lookup: deleted inode referenced: 35923106 [ 2571.942299] EXT3-fs error (device md2): ext3_lookup: deleted inode referenced: 35923110 [ 2571.9568........
  • Ubuntu 10.04/GRUB2 mdadm won't boot


    Moving to RAID was a pain. What you have to do is the following from an existing install: Install mdadm Create your mdadm RAID 1 array on your spare hard drive. Start it with the missing disk. rsync the entire contents of your current / to the md partition. Here's a good way of doing it: rsync -Pha --exclude=/proc/* --exclude=/sys/* --exclude=/mnt/* /. /mnt/md2........
  • GRUB2 won't show boot menu/options/silent boot


    This is a "pro" feature I guess so you don't have to see the ugly GRUB screen but if you're having boot problems or trying to update/customize your system it can be frustrating.You have to do some Googling to find out that you have to hold shift to see the GRUB2 menu. You have to hold shift before GRUB2 loads and you will see it........
  • How to chroot properly into your OS/distro


    From a LiveCD or if you're doing something like converting your non-RAID install to mdadm here's how you would chroot properly (you have to mount your proc, sys and dev on the running system/LiveCD to your chroot environment if you want things to work right, especially if you need to run update-initramfs due to a driver change etc..) *replace "path" with your mount/chroot path mount -o bind /proc /mnt/path/proc mount -o bind /dev/ mnt/pa........
  • EOL for Kubuntu/Ubuntu 8.04 - W: Failed to fetch http://ca.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/dists/intrepid/universe/source/Sources.gz 404 Not Found [IP: 91.189.92.171 80]


    I couldn't figure out whyI couldn't install a simple package. This is what's annoying about cutting edge Debian distros, yes we know you support each license on average for 1-2 years but why take down the supporting binary packages and basically disable the older versions? sudo apt-get install update Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done E: Couldn't find p........
  • http://apt.sw.be/redhat/el5/en/i386/test/repodata/repomd.xml: [Errno 14] HTTP Error 404: Not Found Trying other mirror.


    http://apt.sw.be/redhat/el5/en/i386/test/repodata/repomd.xml: [Errno 14] HTTP Error 404: Not Found Trying other mirror. Error: Cannot retrieve repository metadata (repomd.xml) for repository: rpmforge-testing. Please verify its path and try again Notice it is complaining about "rpmforge-testing", just disable it for now: Solution is to edit the repo: vi /etc/yum.repos.d/rpmforge-testing.repo........
  • PHP Email Attachment Corrupt Solution


    I couldn't figure out why this wouldn't work, a test script in the root of my htdocs folder worked fine. Within some subdirectories the same code would produce different base64 results but I didn't know hwy. Archive: /tmp/archive.zip Zip file size: 6888 bytes, number of entries: 92 error [/tmp/archive.zip]: missing 242827681 bytes in zipfile (attempting to process anyway) error [/tmp/archive.zip]: attempt........
  • Wine stopped working/won't work Solution


    After an upgrade wine wouldn't open anything, not even the pre-installed notepad. There are no wine logs and nothing is mentioned in any standard log file about why. I finally decided to run wine from the shell and see what's going on: wine client error:0: version mismatch 398/402. Your wineserver binary was not upgraded correctly, or you have an older one somewhere in your PATH. Or maybe the wrong wineserver is still running?........
  • GNOME/Nautilus Resize Images/Pictures from File Manager by right clicking


    Just install the following package "nautilus-image-converter" and you will be able to right click any image and convert the size and rotate it. My only wish is that you could also convert the image type from say tiff to jpg etc... This is an awesome/handy/feature and great tool to have. This is one way where GNOME/Nautilus excel, the possibilities are endless to simplify and make simple/mundane tasks quicker and more efficient than ever.........
  • Nautilus/GNOME/Ubuntu File Manager not applying appearance style/changes


    I thought it was a GNOME problem because no matter what styles I applied Nautilus wouldn't change, but it was only Nautilus that wouldn't change/update anymore so I should have known. The only fix/solutionI knew of other than rebooting is the following: sudo killall nautilus I tried closing all instances of nautilus that were visible and it had no effect. And another thing to remember is that only will appearances/styles/themes not apply to N........
  • Revert to GRUB 0.97/1 instead of GRUB2


    had trouble trying to revert Ubuntu 10.04 LTS from grub2, won't boot mdraid and did not even install mdadm during the installation! I have tried moving back to GRUB 0.97 backed up original /boot and then copied /boot from an old Debian install. Modified device.map and menu.lst and put the appropriate kernels and initrd for Ubuntu back in /boot I ran grub: root (hd0,1) grub> setup (hd0) Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1........
  • DRBD WFConnection Problem/Solution


    This has stumped me a few times because I keep forgetting that Centos 5.5 comes with a default iptables configuration that ends up blocking DRBD traffic,I tried all the normal things and couldn't understand why I couldn't make my normal DRBD config work. So if you have WFConnection problems and have tried the normal "mailing list" fixes, check your firewall status first! Both Nodes Say the Following: version: 8.3.8 (api:88/prot........
  • How not to change an IP address in CPanel during a migration


    /usr/local/cpanel/bin/swapip domain(s) It simply doesn't work, the Apache VHOSTS remain 100% unchanged, why does this script exist? I'm sure it would work from the control panel but I am locked out because my IP was changed and it doesn't match the CPanel license. I wish CPanel would make it easier to update the license IP. I even took it a step farther, I manually edited the vhosts and restarted Apache and it........
  • sed script to automatically update IPs in named/BIND and httpd/Apache


    Always make a backup of the original file before trying this, I find this kind of thing when updating IPs etc.. to use a script. Where the old IP is "192.168.5.8" and the new IP is "10.10.5.8" sed -i s/192.168.5.8/10.10.5.8/g testdomain.org.db The -i with sed means "inline" meaning we edit the file directly, but without the -i we could just use >and output the results to another file or do whatever else we wanted.........
  • mdadm Linux Software RAID QuickStart Guide


    Create New RAID 1 Array: First setup your partitions (make sure they are exactly the same size) In my example I have sda3 and sdb3 which are 500GB in size. mdadm --create /dev/md2 --level=1 --raid-devices=2 /dev/sda3 /dev/sdb3 mdadm: array /dev/md2 started. Check Status Of The Array *Note I already have other arrays md0 and md1. You can see below that md2 is syn........
  • Ubuntu 10.04 Linux is still not ready for the Desktop world


    I am a huge fan of Linux and the idea of OpenSource but I've said it many times, there are still hurdles in today in 2010 for Linux as a Desktop. Linux is still intended for servers at its very core. This can be changed succesfully though, as Apple has shown us with Mac OS X based on FreeBSD. Half of the issue is lack of driver support and the other half is the Linux Kernel and Window Manages, KDE and GNome still both don't cut it (but they're getting closer). I'll........
  • How to Enable SMART on a device


    smartctl -a -d ata -T permissive --smart=on /dev/sda -d ata is usually required for most SATA drives or you get an error. -T permissive is required if it's the first time you are running SMART on this device (it's not enough just to enable SMART in the BIOS) --smart=on is also required for the first time........
  • Local policy does not permit you to log on interactively. - Solution/Fix


    For a standalone system the solution is simple, just use the same version of Windows a copy a good version of: C:windowsSecurityDatabasesecedit.sdb from another computer. Then you should be able to login again without getting the nasty message "Local policy does not permit you to log on interactively." Of course you will probably need a way of accessing the filesystem off-line in order to get to it such as a Linux boot disc. Some........
  • md: kicking non-fresh sda1 from array! - fix/solution


    md: Autodetecting RAID arrays. md: autorun ... md: considering sdb1 ... md: adding sdb1 ... md: adding sda1 ... md: created md0 md: bind md: bind md: running: md: kicking non-fresh sda1 from array! md: unbind md: export_rdev(sda1) raid1: raid set md0 active with 1 out of 2 mirrors The md0 raid kicked sda1 ou........
  • mencoder Linux CLI video editing how to encode video file into xvid and split by time into multiple parts


    Mencoder is great, you can throw anything at it, including video files from your camera and have it encode into xvid or almost any other format. In my case I took 640x480 video from my Canon and reduced the size by 1/3 with the options below (there are many other options that you can read about in the manual but I like to keep it simple). Mencoder Encode mencoder -ovc xvid -oac mp3lame -xvidencopts fixed_quant=4 -o ........
  • mdadm when a RAID 1 member dies


    [27969.398749] sd 5:0:0:0: [sdb] 3907029168 512-byte hardware sectors (2000399 MB) [27969.398749] sd 5:0:0:0: [sdb] Write Protect is off [27969.398749] sd 5:0:0:0: [sdb] Mode Sense: 00 3a 00 00 [27969.398749] sd 5:0:0:0: [sdb] Write cache: enabled, read cache: enabled, doesn't support DPO or FUA [27972.117543] ata6.00: exception Emask 0x0 SAct 0x1 SErr 0x0 action 0x0 [27972.117543] ata6.00: irq_stat 0x48000000 [27972.117543] ata6.00: cmd 60/08:00:ff:7........
  • mdadm "auto-read-only" Linux Software RAID solution


    If you have the "(auto-read-only)" beside an arrayI have no idea why that happens but it is easy to fix. Just run "mdadm --readwrite /dev/md1" (rename md0 to the device with the problem and it will begin to resync. md1 : active (auto-read-only) raid1 sdb2[0] sda2[1] 19534976 blocks [2/2] [UU] resync=PENDING ........
  • Linux Burn MP3 CD On the Fly using


    I finally decided to look into some utils that did this, and the first one I found is "mp3burn". It is unbelievable simple and perfect. *2017-11 update and mp3burn is still available in standard repos such as Ubuntu 14/16 so this is a current and working project. Just install the package and it gets all required libraries to convert and then burn's on the fly. And you won't believe how simple it is. I just want to a directory that had the MP3's I wanted t........
  • Realtek r8169 1gbit/1000mbit NIC/Ethernet Goes Down/Halts on Large File Transfer/Heavy Network Usage


    This is obviously a bug in the r8169 kernel module and it seems to affect a lot of people. I upgraded to the latest kernel and hope this won't happen anymore, as it is a very serious error. This is especially serious for those who are running servers with this chipset, who can afford for the NIC to randomly go off-line for no apparent reason? [655548.189113] type=1505 audit(1277067560.902:5): operation="profile_load" name="/usr/bin/freshclam&q........
  • RAID 5 doomed in 2009?


    http://www.tomshardware.com/news/RAID-5-Doomed-2009,6525.html I found this article interesting, it basically says that with 2TB hard drives or larger sizes, you are more likely to encounter an unrecoverable read error. But is this just another Y2K doomsday? Don't HDD's have enough advanced hardware ECC error and read recovery to prevent this from happening? I'm almost tempted to build a 3 x........
  • MySQL Insert Statement ONLY IF a duplicate entry does not exist


    This is a great way to reduce MySQL code/mistakes/annoyance when doing things, take for example this statement: INSERT IGNORE INTO sometable(CatName) VALUES("someitem"); Notice the "IGNORE", that is what does the magic. Normally if the entry "someitem" existed you'd get an error message back such as "Duplicate entry for whatever". What I have normally done in PHP or whatever language is manually coded or made a........
  • Install Mac OS X 10.4.6 Tiger on AMD32 VMWare


    *Note OS X is strange to install, I thought my HDD was not being detected by you just have to go to Diskutil and create a partition for the root filesystem and then close/move the Window and proceed with the install. After install Mac OS X 10.4.6 Tiger I get a black screen that says: b0 error Most people say the partition has to be marked as "active", actually that just means marked as "bootable". Instead of t........
  • XBOX 360 No Sound over HDMI Solution/Fix


    My XBOX's dashboard/firmware was from sometime in 2008 when I first bought the system. I mainly played using composite cables but at my brother in law's house we used HDMI. The very first time it worked, but then I bought some games that did some update and after that HDMI never worked. The symptoms besides having on sound is that your XBOX will show PC monitor resolutions but won't have any option to say you have a 720P or 1080P display, this means the XBOX firmware is fa........
  • Use rcconf to edit startup/init.d/init scripts on Debian/Ubuntu based distributions


    I've never understood how to enable and disable services for different run levels in Debian based distros, it's just weird, annoying and doesn't make sense. I much prefer chkconfig from RHEL. Just install the package called 'rcconf' and be done with it. rcconf makes things easy for you. apt-get install rcconf Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done........
  • mdadm: /dev/sda1 is too small: 0K - solution


    I was creating a RAID array and got this error: mdadm: /dev/sda1 is too small: 0K mdadm: create aborted Of course sda1 is not too small, both partitions sda1 and sdb1 are identical in size: Disk /dev/sda: 2000.3 GB, 2000398934016 bytes 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 243201 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes Disk identifier: 0x00000000 Device Boot Sta........
  • mdadm can you downgrade the superblock?


    Why would you want to downgrade the superblock? Old mdadm verisons like mdadm 2.5.6 only use the 0.90 superblock/metadata and new versions use 1,1.0,1.1 and 1.2 superblocks by default. There are some annoying caveats with this, first of all the new superblocks (later than 0.90) CANNOT be read by GRUB, so you won't even be able to install GRUB. Even worse, old versions of mdadm CANNOT automatically detect arrays even if they were created with a new version of mdadm with th........
  • Linux Centos/RHEL can't find php/apache/httpd/mysql/ftp/exim/sendmail ?


    I wasted a lot of time wondering why I could never find those packages. Check the /etc/yum.conf file and at the bottom look for the "exclude=" line. Below is what I found in mine exclude=apache* httpd* mod_* mysql* MySQL* da_* *ftp* exim* sendmail* php* bind-chroot* Just remove those entries or uncomment that line and you'll get access to the missing applications.........
  • Why does mdadm have two sets of UUID's?


    Which one does the OS care about? blkid says the UUID is "787f1fa4-b010-4d77-a010-795b42884f56" while md insists its UUID is "4d96dd3b:deb5d555:7adb93cb:ce9182d9" When in doubt, do we assume the OS takes the one from blkid? /dev/md0: UUID="787f1fa4-b010-4d77-a010-795b42884f56" TYPE="ext3" [root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md0 /dev/md0: Version : 0.90 &........
  • mdadm force/fix proper md127 name


    I have an md0 arary that my Centos install refers to. I feel this is half the reason why it won't boot anymore. I saw the initrd for Centos was assembling it as md127 even though it was known as md0. The reason for this is because I used mdadm --assemble --scan to detect the array on a LiveCD. I had no idea this name would stick (but now I realize the name is permanently stored in the metadata once you mount md127 or whatever random name assemble gives it). W........
  • MySQL Recover/Reset Lost/Forgotten root Password


    One note is to secure MySQL, I don't know for sure but I believe you could login to MySQL remotely with no password during this operation (I'm not sure, maybe it doesn't accept blank passwords but I firewall MySQL port anyway and recommend you do the same). First edit /etc/my.cf Under the [mysqld] field add the following line somewhere: skip-grant-tables Now restart mysql: service mysql restart or on Debian sty........
  • Debian 5.04 RAID 1 mdadm boot problem GRUB error


    I successfully created a single RAID 1 partition which includes /boot inside it and my root directory through the Debian installer. It said GRUB installed successfully but when I try booting the OS it seems GRUB can't read anything. When trying to boot from GRUB GRUB Loading stage 1.5. GRUB loading, please wait... Error 2 I get "Error 2" when trying to boot Debian. I also notice from a LiveCD that........
  • Centos 5.5 RAID 1 boot issue


    I installed 5.5 with a 300GB RAID 1 partition (boot is also on this partition). It booted up fine the first few times until after I used a Live CD and accessed the array, and it became named /dev/md127 for some reason. Now whenI boot into CentOS I get a kernel panic and different errors, once I got "invalid superblock", even though the array is fine (it didn't happen again, probably because I was sure to dismount and stop the mdadm array properly). Here's what........
  • Intel Corei5 750 Complaint/Onboard Video Issue on Intel H57 chipset not working


    Do you have an LGA1156 board and wonder why your onboard video isn't working? It's probably because there is no GPU integrated on the board itself, it is supposed to be on the CPU and new CPU's from Intel don't come with it! I was shocked to learn that you can buy a motherboard with onboard video which doesn't work. Inever knew it was being done or possible, but to make it worse the latest Core i5's don't have video on the die of the CPU. This means having on........
  • Compile PHP 5.3.2 on Centos 5 and CPanel/WHM because of error - Fatal error: Call to > undefined function imagecreatefromjpeg()


    This function and others may not work with the stock PHPinstall on Centos/CPanel: Fatal error: Call to > undefined function imagecreatefromjpeg() Even with libjpeg-devel installed it won't work because PHP was not compiled with jpeg support, so we have to do the dirty work ourselves :) Here is the command/yum's I did to install missing libraries for PHP that configure will complain about (yes it is a one by one process). yum install bzip2-........
  • Unixbench Score on Core i5 750 with OpenVZ Kernel vs Xen/Openvz


    This was unbelievable how much the Xen kernel slows things down, keep in mind both tests were done on the hostnode, one was with the Openvz-Xen hybrid kernel and the other was just OpenVZ. You can see the performance difference is nearly 300% better when not using the Xen kernel. OpenVZ-Xen Kernel Test Results (I was wondering what was wrong/so slow with my Core i5!) # # # # # #&n........
  • WARNING: REMOTE HOST IDENTIFICATION HAS CHANGED!


    The easiest way is if you have a secure way to connect and verify the hostkey of the remote host by using this guide. @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ @ WARNING: REMOTE HOST IDENTIFICATION HAS CHANGED! @ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ IT IS POSSIBLE THAT SOMEONE IS DOING SOME........
  • chroot into an off-line Linux version using a LiveCD/USB


    It's not just as simple as running the chroot command, you need to ensure the /proc and /dev entries are passed through and populated to the chroot environment. Step 1 - Mount Your Off-lineOS mount /dev/sda1 /mnt Step 2 - Mount Proc mount -t proc none /mnt/proc Step 3 - Mount Dev Most guides will tell you to use this: mount -o bind /dev /mnt//dev but that doesn't work for some reason in many cases: mount: wron........
  • mdadm Linux Software RAID auto-detect and assemble RAID Array


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    I've had an old Blackberry for a few years and I was ready to spend some serious cash on a nice Nokia. I love the idea of the Linux based Symbian S60 OS, so I was looking at phones like the E63, E71 (both are basically the same, at least CPU/screensize although E71 is thinner, has a 3MP camera, has GPS, and has dedicated buttons to adjust the volume). Then Iheard about the N97 and what a revolution it was supposed to be and it was even compared to iPhone. To........
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    There's a lot of information and guides on OCFS2 for RHELand Centos Linux but the package setup and configuration is slightly different and this has thrown some people off. Installing OC2FS You should install the following packages to get started: apt-get install ocfs2-tools ocfs2console Configure OC2FS In RHEL/Centos the main configuration file is located in /etc/sysconfig/o2cb However in Debian based Linux it is located........
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